Although effective, the compressor of an air conditioner uses a rage amount of electricity, and the radiated heat from the air con also increases the ambient air temperature outside. This project will explore if it will be feasible to take advantage of this constant cool ground temperature and use it as part of a low-energy compressor-less air conditioner. To test this, a scaled down mock-up heat exchanger with a fan will be built to absorb the heat from room air and transfer that heat to a coolant liquid.
This liquid will be pumped into a water cooler that simulates underground temperature where the heat will be transferred to the ground. The llano will then be recalculated back into a radiator. The inlet and outlet temperatures will be monitored to see if there is any significant cooling effect. If this project is successful, this may be employed as a low-energy air conditioning system that is good for the environment and does not waste energy and create excessive heat like regular air conditioners. ChapterBackground of the Study The world is currently experiencing problems involving our energy resources.
The problem is the rate that the world’s energy demands are increasing is faster than the rate at which renewable sources are being developed. So until the time that both renewable and fossil fuelled energy resources can be stabilized to meet demand, the only real solution is to look for ways to reduce our energy consumption. Looking at how much electricity we use, you will see that air conditioning contributes the largest snare tot our total energy consumption. This is particularly true in summer, where the use of air conditioning can contribute to more than 50% of household electrical consumption.
Of course we can Just stop using our raccoons, but that would only work on cool days, like around Christmas time, but it would also aka our homes very uncomfortable during summer. So the better solution would be to look at how to make an raccoons use less electricity. The reason why raccoons use so much electricity is because of the compressor. This is the most important part of the ration because it compresses the heat that is taken from inside the room and transfers that heat outside where the heat is radiated into the atmosphere.
The compressor makes sure that the temperature of the arson’s condenser is always hotter than the outside ambient air temperature, so that the heat will transfer from the condenser to the outside air. When the heat is rendered (or exchanged) to the outside air, the now cool air is brought back into the room. That is why raccoons are also called heat exchangers. If there was a way to construct a heat exchanger that does not use a compressor, then it would be possible to have a very energy efficient air conditioner.
For a compressor-less heat exchanger to work, it has to be able to radiate its heat into a place that is cooler than the room being cooled. One possible place is the earth itself. In the Philippines, the ground temperature beyond mm below the surface is constant at ICC, regardless of what the outside temperature is. This can be as low as 200 C if ground water is present, usually around mm below the surface. This project aims to explore the feasibility of building a compressor-less heat exchanger as an alternative to conventional raccoons.
The heat exchanger will take the heat from a room (the same way as a regular ration) and then use the earth as a heat sink to absorb that heat. Since the ground temperature will always be lower than the temperature of the room being cooled, then there is no need for a compressor. It should be possible to get the room to cool down to the same temperature as the ground. Because this type of heat exchanger will only use a radiator, a blower fan and a small water pump, its energy consumption can be much lower than what an ration uses but it will still be able to provide the same cooling as a regular ration.
The researcher chose to conduct this study because the world needs to find a way to prevent the abatement of our non-renewable resources by making use of our renewable energy resources for a better future. If this experiment is successful, it will prove that it is possible to make an energy efficient air conditioner. Objectives of the Study The researcher considers the tolling objective tot the study: . To determine if ground source geothermal cooling can be used as an alternative for conventional air-conditioning 2. To determine if a ground source geothermal cooling system will use less electricity than a conventional air conditioner.
Statement of the Problem This study seeks to answer the following questions: 1 . Can ground source geothermal cooling be an alternative of air-conditioning? 2. Will a ground source geothermal cooling system use less electricity than a conventional air conditioner? Hypothesis 1 . The ground source geothermal cooling is a possible alternative for conventional IR-conditioning. 2. The ground source geothermal cooling system will be more energy efficient than a conventional air conditioner. Scope and Delimitation This study will focus on proving the concept of ground source geothermal cooling.
The output of this project will be a scaled down ground source geothermal cooling system using a miniature room mock up with a heat exchanger and a heat sink in a simulated ground cooling system. As a proof of concept, this project will not be done in full scale, but it will identify possible issues to be considered for building a full-scale version. Significance of the Study To the students, this study shows that they can help the environment at a young age. And in the future, they can use this study as a guide for a better living.
To the researchers, this study will provide the basis tort turner study on now to build a full-scale ground source geothermal cooling system that can potentially replace the use of conventional raccoons. To the businessmen, this study will help them in finding new ways in saving money because this study promotes less use of electricity. Therefore, less money is spent. To the country, this study is significant because of the amount of electricity that an be saved by this system can result in not only lower electricity bills, but also lessen our country use of fossil fuels and reduce our CA emissions.
Definition of Terms Fossil fuels. Fuels that are formed by natural processes such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms. The age of the organisms and their resulting fossil fuels is typically millions of years, and sometimes exceeds 650 million years. Ground source geothermal cooling. A central cooling system that pumps heat to or from the ground. It uses the earth as a heat sink. This design takes advantage of the iterate temperatures in the ground to boost efficiency and reduce the operational costs of heating and cooling systems Heat Exchanger.
A device for transferring heat from one medium to another. Heat Sink. A device or substance for absorbing excessive or unwanted heat Renewable energy. Renewable energy is energy which comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat, which are renewable (naturally replenished). Chapter II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Throughout the history of man, people have been taking advantage of the insulating properties of the earth as protection from the weather.
From the time that Stone Age man started moving out of caves and into man-made dwellings during the Middle Paleolithic Age 50,000 years ago, fully or semi-underground man-made shelters were the primary means used by man to protect himself from extreme heat or cold. (Clark,J. Despond, 1982. The Culture of the Middle Paleolithic/Middle Stone Age) This use of underground shelters as well as above ground earthen structures continued throughout the ancient and modern times, because earthen structures provide constant year-round indoor temperatures, regardless tot the outdoor temperature. (Roy, Robert, 2006.
Earth Sheltered Houses). Modern geologists have since determined that underground temperature for any specific location on the planet remains constant throughout the year and is equal to the average annual temperature for that specific region (California Energy Commission, 2009. Geothermal or Ground Source Heat Pumps). In the Philippines, the underground temperature has been determined to be 25. 8 deg above the water table or when there is no ground water present, and 20. 3 deg when ground water is present (Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration, 2001.
Climate of the Philippines). In the United States and Europe, the use of coolant piped into the ground is called ground source geothermal cooling. This is primarily used to reduce energy consumption during the winter months where the ground temperatures are higher than the ambient air temperature. It has also been used secondarily for cooling in summer, when the ground is cooler than the ambient air. However, the low average humidity makes evaporative coolers cheaper and more efficient, therefore, the use of ground source geothermal as a replacement for conventional reconditioning is limited.
Several non-commercial and experimental ground source geothermal air indigestion systems are being used and tested in some southern US states where the high summer humidity prevents the efficient use of evaporative coolers (Cannon, Robert, 1978, Ground-Water Heat Pumps – Home Heating and Cooling from Your Own well). In the Philippines, there is a potential to use ground source cooling because the ground temperature can be as much as 15 deg cooler than the ambient air temperature at the peak of summer.
Air conditioning manufacturers recommend that for maximum comfort and efficiency, conventional reconditions should be set to a temperature exactly 10 deg lower than the outside temperature can F. Kiered. 996. Handbook of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning). Since the ground temperature can be as much as 15 deg cooler than the outside air, then a compressor-less ground source cooling air conditioner can potentially provide the same cooling as a standard air conditioner.
Also, with a 15 deg temperature difference between the ground and the inside of a house or building will allow the use off simple heat exchanger using water pump and a heat sink buried underground below the water table to take the hot indoor air from a house or building and transfer that heat into the ground (Winning, J,1996. Chemical engineering thermodynamics). Chapter Ill. Methodology Materials This study used a small scale mock-up tot a ground source cooling system. Trials used to construct the mock-up are a cardboard box (mm x mm x 1 m), foam roofing insulation, heat exchanger, electric blower fan (computer fan), aquarium water pump, ducting (3″ diameter), rubber hoses, ice cooler, digital thermometers and a timer. Procedures To construct the mock-up of a house, the cardboard box was first lined with foam insulation. Then Two 3-inch holes were cut into the box, one on each side and ducting was attached to each hole. A digital thermometer was put inside the house to observe the changes in air temperature during the experiment.
To simulate the ground, the ice cooler was filled with water and ice added to attain a temperature of 20. 3 deg measured with a thermometer. Ice was then added as needed during the experiment to keep the temperature constant. For the heat exchanger, the tubing from the box was connected to an electric blower fan. The radiator was them attached to the other end of the fan. The other end of the duct was then attached to the opposite side of the radiator. To simulate the underground heat sink, coiled aluminum tubing was put into the ice cooler.
Rubber hoses were then attached to both ends of the aluminum tubing. To circulate the water between the radiator and the heat sink, an aquarium water pump was used and connected to both the radiator and the heat sink so that water could circulate between the heat sink and the radiator. Before starting the experiment, the temperature of the box was measured and noted. Then the blower fan and water pump were turned on to circulate the coolant and the timer was started. With the fan and the pump running, the temperature of the box was constantly monitored and any changes in temperature over time were noted.
Simultaneously, he temperature of the ice box was also monitored to make sure that the temperature remained constant. If the temperature of the ice box increased, then additional ice was added as needed to maintain a constant 20. 3 deg temperature. The heat exchanger was kept running until the time that the temperature of the box became constant. The ending temperature and the elapsed time were then noted. Chapter IV A. Presentation of Data Four tests were conducted using the mock-up in order to examine how the mock up performs under daytime and night time temperature conditions.
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