The banking industry in Trinidad and Tobago has slightly changed in the past few old ages. This resulted in the entry of some Bankss and the re-entry of others. This paper strategically analyses the current strategic place of one of the major Bankss, First Citizens ( FC ) . First Citizens Bank is a member of the First Citizens Group, which consists of:
First Citizens Bank Limited
First Citizens Asset Management Limited
First Citizens Trustee Services Limited
First Citizens ( St. Lucia ) Limited
First Citizens Securities Trading Limited
Caribbean Money Market Brokers ( CMMB )
For the intents of this paper, First Citizens Bank ‘s current schemes that are being utilised to accomplish its end are critically analysed along with its internal and external environment, which set up the forces that drives alteration and the cardinal success factors that sustains competitory advantage. All these factors give rise to the SWOT analysis of the bank, which matches the bank resources and capablenesss to the competitory environment in which it operates.
FC Bank is the first autochthonal bank of Trinidad and Tobago and was formed in 1993 out of the merger of three failed fiscal establishments viz. : The Workers Bank of Trinidad and Tobago 1989 Ltd, Trinidad Co-operative Bank Ltd and The National Commercial Bank Ltd. It is the 3rd largest bank in Trinidad and Tobago and the fastest growth. Over the old ages, FC Bank has become one of the part ‘s prima and most dynamic fiscal merchandise and service suppliers. This place is farther strengthened by the acquisition of CMMB one twelvemonth ago. The leading ‘s hardiness at the bank has championed the industry in engineering, advanced merchandise offerings and profitableness, which earned them legion awards, with the most recent being ‘World Finance magazine – Best Bank, Trinidad and Tobago 2009 ‘ .
2.0 DEFINING THE Industry
The banking industry is portion of the Financial Services Sector, which is extremely regulated by the Financial Act of Trinidad and Tobago. The Financial Services industry comprises of recognition brotherhoods, investing Bankss, insurance companies, common financess etc. All the aforesaid offers similar services as retail banking as per a regular bank, but the Commercial Banking Sector consists of all fiscal establishments permitted the Financial Services Act and approved by the Central Bank. There are a figure of commercial Bankss approved by the Central Bank and registered under the act, these include:
First Citizens Bank Limited
Republic Bank limited ( RBL )
Royal Bank of Trinidad and Tobago ( RBTT )
Citibank ( Trinidad and Tobago ) Limited
First Caribbean International Bank
Bank of Baroda
For the intent of this paper, this would be defined as the industry and would be the footing on which analysis is made.
3.0 ORGANIZATIONAL FRAMEWORK
3.1 Vision, Mission and Objectives of First Citizens
First Citizens ‘ vision is “ To go the most competitory group in Trinidad and Tobago with a well established international presence. ” While the mission is “ to construct a extremely profitable fiscal services franchise renowned for innovativeness, service excellence and sound corporate administration. ” To accomplish the purpose FC focuses on uninterrupted betterment of systems and merchandises, constructing a strong base of cognition and skilled workers and making strategic partnerships in cardinal sectors that add value to the franchise.
The mission is underpinned by the nucleus values, which assist the employees in the accomplishment of the mission. The nucleus values are:
Committedness to excellence
Committedness to clients
Committedness to unity
Committedness to fiscal strength
Committedness to employees
Committedness to uninterrupted betterment
The chief aim of the bank is to better profitableness with a major focal point on its return on equity. The chief aim is supported by secondary aims, which are:
Leveraging Technology to make assurance in the bank ‘s systems and process
Reducing operating expenses costs while at the same time increasing grosss
Aggressively increasing assets, loans and fund base
Widening the scope of merchandises and services chiefly in the country of cyberspace and Mobile ( electronic ) banking
Bettering First Citizens ‘ hazard direction
Bettering the Group ‘s image and service quality
Intensifying the human resource competency
These aims are quantified utilizing the balance scorecard, which sets specific marks needed to be achieved in order to accomplish the administration ‘s aims. In order to accomplish the aims, each subdivision director, section and unit is required to bring forth a balanced mark card, which finally sums to the overall directional scorecard.
In order for the vision, mission and aims of FC to go operational schemes must be implemented. Figure shows the alliance of First Citizens ‘ schemes with its vision. The usage of the group ‘s balance has made scheme devising and organizational coordination reflect the top-down mode in which scheme is developed and communicated. The Bankss ‘ bing schemes is summarised utilizing Ansoff ‘s Directional Matrix ( see figure ) .
From the Directional Matrix, FC Bank ‘s variegation scheme exemplifies the Bank ‘s push into a wider and more competitory industry. This is indicates that boundaries that separate traditional banking from other type of fiscal services are being eliminated, this is besides an index of the industry in its adulthood phase ( indicated in a ulterior chapter ) . Although the scheme is that of variegation it involves a wide market range. The scheme involves leveraging engineering to supply first-class client service particularly since FC is ever foremost to market. It is the technological promotion, that is the bank ‘s nucleus competence and some characteristics ( nomadic point of sale ) gives it its typical capableness.
4.0 THE DYNAMICS OF THE EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT
All organisations are inextricably associated with its external environment, irrespective of the state to which it belongs. This association influences how the organisation operates and the merchandises or services provided. The external forces may ease or suppress organisational public presentation and may organize bounds with which the organisation is able to work. These forces shape how the organisation defines itself and how it articulates its ends, aims and schemes. An analysis of the external environment aids in understanding the forces or factors that shape the organisation.
4.1 PEST Analysis
Plague analyses the external macro-environment in which an organisation operates, based on political, economical, societal and technological factors. These factors are beyond the control of the organisation but must be considered in explicating the schemes of the organisation.
Plague Analysis for First Citizens
The Political clime of Trinidad and Tobago has remained rather stable over the past 20 old ages. This has led to execution of statute laws that improved efficiency and decreased costs ( banking fees ) in the Banking sector, but have besides reduced borders and fee income. The latest statute law implemented is the Anti-money Laundering statute law, in which most of the states in this part is following. This jurisprudence has sought to increase the transparence of Bankss and efforts to take down the recognition hazards of the state in which the measure is implemented. The banking industry over the old ages has dynamically evolved ; this development has led to the gap of the banking industry ( regionally ) or relaxation of entry demand for big foreign Bankss, for illustration, the entry of the Bank of Baroda. This has led to farther variegation of the banking sector that necessarily breeds competition. However, although competition creates invention, this threatens the profitableness of the current Bankss in the market as larger more capitalized Bankss can undersell the local Bankss and diminish their market size. These foreign Bankss operate as loss leaders to steal market portion and farther decline chance in an already concentrated market. As a consequence, in recent old ages at that place have been re-entry of Bankss into the sector e.g. First Caribbean International Bank ( FCIB ) . Furthermore, FC is owned the authorities which suggest that there is slow determination devising in the organisation nevertheless, the authorities can be the chief borrower on the market.
The universe ‘s economic system, over the past two old ages, has experienced a downswing, which saw many states GDP diminution that resulted in declaration of recession and the plumb bob of oil monetary values, which adversely affected the banking industry of most states. However, all indexs point towards betterment in the economic system though it may be slow. The effects of the economic system has led to Bankss cut downing involvement rates and fees in order to cut down the sum of loan defaults and increase economic activity in an effort to hike the economic system. The betterment of the economic system will see trade good monetary values bettering which will increase grosss and economic activity, which will leave a greater possible for loaning and adoption by Bankss. However, there is a hazard of returning to inflationary force per unit areas with attach toing increasing involvement rates. The mal-effects of the downswing has led to increased unemployment which increased loan defaults, nevertheless there have been some refinancing of loans in an effort to cut down defaults. Harmonizing to the Central Bank Governor, in the concern subdivision of the Guardian Newspaper, if the economic growing is slower than in the past, banking establishment will be forced to consolidate to accomplish economic systems of graduated table. This reduces competition in an industry, in which competition breeds invention and
Socially, offense is considered a two edged blade since it creates an chance for Bankss to finance security companies ; nevertheless, it has led to the issue of many concern proprietors and therefore capital. A high offense rate can harm the state ‘s foreign direct investing ( FDI ) chances and by extension touristry. As the state is developing, one would happen that people are being more educated and clients are demanding better quality and measure service ; people are intolerant of hapless client service and deficiency of promotion in the banking industry. It is foreseen that, if the issue of offense is non addressed that there would be farther flight of capital, lessening in FDIs and touristry. In add-on, if Bankss do non come on with engineering, there would a flight of clients to the replacements in the market.
The banking industry has to the full embraced engineering, which has revolutionised the sector. The technological promotion by Bankss has empowered clients so that they control their fiscal information with greater entree. This has besides led to the creative activity of high issue barriers. However, non all clients may encompass these technological advancements and prefer the traditional banking services. If this patterned advance continues at the current gait, the industry will be extremely serviced and merchandise innovated. However, client must do greater usage of these technological promotion as with nomadic telephone if the industry is to be farther product/service diversified.
4.2 Industry Analysis for First Citizens
The industry analysis AIDSs in the finding of factors that determines the banking industry profitableness. Porter ‘s Five Forces Analysis is an appraisal that is used to understand the current competitory place and the future attraction of the industry, this is seen in figure.
The menace of replacement is legion and includes companies that offer fiscal services such as insurance companies, Unit Trust Corporation, Island Finance, investing Bankss, recognition brotherhoods etc. Some non-financial establishments such as furniture shops and auto franchises are besides menaces since they offer recognition. These replacements offer similar service and merchandises without the regulative demands of Bankss, which makes their procedure faster than Bankss. These replacements have encroached on the banking industry profitableness, nevertheless, with the recent downswing of the economic system, clients have returned to Bankss since it is perceived to be more stable. In add-on, to invalidate the menace of replacements and prolong the industry ‘s profitableness Bankss have besides formed confederations with other fiscal establishments.
The bargaining power of clients is average but increasing as a consequence of a broad assortment of replacements, similarity of merchandises and lower client trueness ( due to logistics ) . However, it is counteracted by high shift costs caused by the clip and incommodiousness of reassigning histories to other fiscal establishments and a big figure of clients. It is perceived, nevertheless, that the advanced engineering and the increasing figure of replacements, have reduced shift costs, this is true to some extent, illustration retail sedimentations but in footings of loans, corporate sedimentations etc. the exchanging cost is high.
The bargaining power of providers is besides medium and increasing. Although there are a big figure of providers for general resources, there are a little figure of providers for the critical resources of Bankss, for illustration, ABMs, system applications, money counter etc. which makes exchanging backbreaking and time-consuming.
From the PEST analysis, it seen that the banking industry ‘s market is more opened and there is a relaxation of demands. This consequences in the menace of new entrants being medium to high and is expected to escalate if there is farther dismantlement of barriers/requirement. Consequently, it is easier for a big foreign establishment to come in into the market, illustration, the acquisition of RBTT by RBC and the entry of Bank of Baroda, these establishment will with hold the necessary capital investings and trade name acknowledgment to make so. However, for a local establishment it is harder because of the high trade name edifice outgo and highly high capital investing. This menace is slightly counteracted by high issue barriers and high shift costs. The banking industry soon has a saturated market and one would happen that is hard to derive market portion to go profitable therefore, entrants are focused on a niche market section. Furthermore, these entrants are big plenty to run as loss leaders.
The above four factors that form scheme, prostration into competition amongst bing rivals ( as seen in figure ) . The fact that the banking industry exhibits oligopolistic cooperation in order to maximise net income, lower cost and maintain position quo, is another index of adulthood. Examples of this type of cooperation are:
Establishing a codification of behavior in which all Bankss must adhere when covering with clients
Technological sharing of webs e.g. linx to ease ATM minutess.
Offer of similar involvement rates and merchandises
In add-on, Bankss have to organize strategic confederations in order to antagonize replacements to better the value system e.g. insurance companies and common financess.
An analysis of the bing competitory competition is restricted to four Bankss. These rivals are identified utilizing Porter ‘s strategic group analysis ( see figure ) .
From figure, rivals in First Citizens ‘ market range operate in the same section and offer similar type merchandises. These Bankss collaborate to protect the profitableness of the industry, particularly in the country of involvement rates, client service quality and non-competitive procedures. The anticipation of the rival environment can be analysed utilizing Grant ‘s Framework for rival analysis, this can be seen in figure.
4.3 The Industry Life Cycle
From figure, it is seen that the banking industry is in its adulthood phase. This can be sustained over an extended period, in which market portion can merely be increased by pulling the rivals ‘ clients. In add-on, a scheme in the mature banking industry, is the inclination of Bankss to consolidate e.g. with insurance companies, security companies ; get or unify e.g. the acquisition of RBTT by RBC and CMMB by FC.
However, Bankss fight to keep its market portion by making high issue barriers for its clients. Recently, clients are highly sensitive to involvement rates, hence in an attempt to retain its clients, one would happen that Bankss in the same market section ( figure ) would hold similar involvement rates. For illustration, if Central Bank decrease the modesty demand all Bankss will diminish its rate to fit each other. In a phase of adulthood, there are countries in which it is more economical to join forces than to vie, this brings approximately greater efficiency at a lower cost e.g. Linx, Transunion and Trinidad and Tobago Interbanking payment system ( TTIPS ) .
4.4 Key Success Factors
In order to be successful in the banking industry there are some cardinal factors. These include:
Effective Regulatory Systems
Relevant Products and Services
Competition which breeds greater invention and by extension efficiency
5.0 THE DYNAMICS OF THE INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT
5.1 Resource Analysis
FC Bank has about 1300 staff members and a well-experienced and knowing senior staff. However, sequence and service quality is a concern because of the high turnover of junior staff. In recent times, staff members are no longer interested in a occupation for life, therefore the bank is revising its procedures to integrate transeunt staffing agreement. In add-on, the bank has developed a direction trainee, corporate resourcing and mentoring programmes for school and university alumnuss. Leadership competences, 360 degree feedback and calling development programmes are besides implemented for junior staff and direction.
The bank has a big client base in surplus of 400,000 histories. Retail banking clients constitute the bulk of the client base. The effect of this is that it involves higher operating and fixed costs, in add-on, to accomplish economic systems of scale both market portion and size has to sufficient. Notwithstanding the sedimentation garnered from these clients, it represents low cost financess to the bank that are so used for loaning.
Although client trueness by and large has improved, they are nevertheless flyaway and could alter base on simple involvement rate difference since they are sensitive to this ( as discussed in Porter ‘s five forces ) . Recently, the bank has embarked on work to better its image and repute.
FC has intensified its relationship with society in attachment to the proverb of Corporate Social duty in a really important manner. This is besides in attachment to the codification of moralss established by the Bankers Association, in which First Citizens bank patrons events:
Environmental: Citizens in Action to reconstruct the Environment ( CARE ) , which assists in the Restoration of the environment. In this respect, internal staff competition are held to widen community interaction and to increase societal and environmental consciousness ( this improves the visual aspect of the bank ) .
Young person and Education: Bursaries to Tertiary Institution. The bank engages in developing school libraries and is a major patron in junior accomplishment.
Sports: First Citizens Sport Foundation, which raise consciousness through clinics and athletics instruction seminars. It is the exclusive patron of the National Sports Foundation, which deals with athleticss instruction, seminars and acknowledgment of winners in the Hall of Fame and Annual Sports Woman/Man of the Year which honors all the winners in all athleticss.
Culture: The Bankss patrons programmes in all cultural/religious events such as, Divali Nagar, Eid-ul-Fitr, Tobago Heritage etc.
The bank has 25 subdivisions strategically located across the state, with three in Tobago. In add-on, an surplus of 80 ATM supports these subdivisions, with a huge figure of these in off branch locations.
FC bank has the taking border in on-line existent clip banking web and is the leader in Internet Banking engineering and communicating web. Its Ethernet and communicating web, which incorporates both voice and informations, besides contributes to the bank being considered as a Technology leader. In fact FC has won the South Trinidad Chamber of Commerce Technology Leadership on three occasions in the last five old ages, an award that has been designed for engineering companies. The bank ‘s huge web of ATM and POS machinery provide important range to its merchandiser and clients likewise and is to the full networked on a local and internal graduated table. The bank has been able to leverage its engineering leading to heighten value for merchandiser and clients. This can be gleamed from the merchandiser e-banking which allows corporate and commercial clients to transact concern from their offices ( paying measures, wages, ACH etc. ) . The value of engineering capital is besides seen with the execution of nomadic POS, which is important for distributers and the service sector.
5.2 Value Added
FC Bank ‘s value concatenation is depicted in figure utilizing Porter ‘s Value Chain analysis. The bank has concentrated chiefly on selling, gross revenues and services. The usage of engineering has been incorporated to accomplish a degree of service and convenience to supply value to the client. The cost to supply such value to the client is of import nevertheless, the hazard to functioning clients is merely every bit of import. The critical factors in this value system are the linkages between accomplishments of staff, hazard direction, information systems, flexible and antiphonal policies/procedures to add such value.
Information engineering is FC bank ‘s nucleus competence particularly since they are the leader in this country. FC uses the technological promotion to increase its value concatenation and to accomplish a higher degree of client service than its rivals. Owing to the extremely leveraged engineering at FC, the degree of efficiency, high evaluations by clients have been improved, although, the market portion has remained stable since the industry is in the mature phase ( industry life rhythm ) .
The usage of engineering is besides the bank ‘s typical capableness, since the bank uses its engineering e.g. nomadic POS and corporate cyberspace banking, to increase the value concatenation of its clients. Figure below depicted how elements of FC bank ‘s outbound and selling logistics becomes incorporated into the clients e.g. eating houses and distributers inbound logistic of their value concatenation.
Internet banking, nomadic POS etc.
First Citizens Bank Value Chain Distributors Value Chain
Restaurants Value concatenation
Figure demoing the connectivity between First Citizens Value Chain and that of its Customers
5.3 McKinsey ‘s 7S
FC bank presently has a bureaucratic ( top-down ) that does non aid in speedy decision-making, which is important. Structure is the key to effectual executing of scheme. Is the construction does non back up scheme in footings of VMOST so the scheme execution will be hard. Despite its best attempts to alter, the bank construction is still excessively bureaucratic.
The bank has to decentralize both vertically along different degrees of the organizational hierarchy and horizontally amongst directors and non-managers based on expertness and experience. In making so, authorization and duty will stay with those in the place, who possesses the necessary accomplishments to implement determinations, ideally front line staff. Presently, the credit-decision devising procedure is based on limited degree authorization by staff and the bureaucratic stairway can impede the effectivity in the lending/investment procedure. Simiarly, as a consequence of Government ordinance ( Central Bank ordinances ) and the general hazard inauspicious civilization of the bank, several to-down controls exist impeding the smooth processing of intricate dealing. If centre deputing decision-making authorization is given to frontline staff e.g. senior direction increasing mandate bounds on loans granted by line directors, the procedures in the bank will more efficient and less clip consuming.
FC bank is a performance-driven acquisition administration, hence all of its systems should be taken into consideration if farther development is to happen. The three indispensable countries are:
Human resource systems
Wagess are based on SMART rule and pre-determined administration and single marks. However, the assessments are based on single and team public presentation and are done on a quarterly footing to place countries foe preparation and development. In add-on, the public presentation is besides measured by balance scorecard with spreads identified to re-prioritise attempts. Human resource records nevertheless, are non automated via a modern HRIS system and hence speedy and effectual decision-making is negatively affected. To further rush the decision-making the top-down system needs to be changed to a bottom-up system that integrates the person and squad public presentation, preparation and development.
Organizational public presentation systems
The bank has two theoretical accounts to measure its public presentation:
The strategic planning theoretical account
This evolves from the vision and mission of the bank and long-run schemes are developed for three old ages on a rolled footing. On an one-year footing schemes are reviewed analysed and adjusted as necessary. Three exercisings inform the concern planning procedure for the resulting twelvemonth and supply cardinal inputs into budgetary allotment which support the executing of the said schemes.
The bank ‘s information system is extremely synergistic, accurate, accessible and easy interrogable. In malice of the high usage of engineering client service staff has non encompass the usage of engineering to present value added. There is high usage of the bank ‘s office direction system for communicating e.g. electronic mail and calendaring. However, directors and staff have non grasped the chance to utilize these systems for work flow efficiency e.g. loan inception systems and electronic loan application and recognition mandate.
Manner is influences in portion by construction. The top-down construction of administration has bred an elitist atmosphere with different beds of direction holding changing grades of power and influence. Directors do non look to exhibit a supportive function and communicating is largely top down to their support staff. In add-on, feedback to employees on public presentation of administration is done via newssheets, squad briefing and staff meetings.
By and large, the direction manner is non of a participative nature and this can hold negative effects on employees ‘ engagement and satisfaction. There is an over copiousness of processs within the system which leads to an excessive sum of clip and attempt spent on administrative procedures therefore cut downing the rhythm clip for client service.
Staff development utilises:
Employee aid programme ( EAP )
360 grade for developmental intents
In add-on, the tools used in developing staff are:
Individual development planning
Leadership competences model – there are seven countries the bank utilise and develop staff ; they are client focal point, teamwork, invention, enterprise ( acquiring consequences ) , unity, entrepreneurship and gross revenues and selling. These are to develop staff in order to develop leading accomplishments but FC has to make the construction, systems etc. to actuate and promote employees to develop along these lines.
Multiple skilled employees are indispensable in a acquisition and public presentation driven administration. The bank is going preponderantly a gross revenues driven administration, with hazard direction and decision-making being critical to its success in the country. Training in developmental programmes in selling, gross revenues, dialogue and difference declaration are provided by the bank to farther develop accomplishments in these countries. However, the construction of the bank is a barrier to the proper airing of accomplishments because of compartmentalization of information. The bank nevertheless, has been a leader in the development of single staff and disbursal important amounts on both internal and external preparation. The instruction aid program provides bank sponsored third instruction up to and including the Masterss level for measure uping staff, this installation has benefitted legion staff members.
Using Johnson and Scholes “ Development Strategies ” model the way used by FC bank should be maintained. The bank has focus on placing market sections and adopted a market incursion and developmental and variegation schemes. These schemes should be suited, acceptable and executable to all stakeholders, employees and clients and should be based the bank ‘s outstanding client service, invention and its nucleus competence of engineering.
However, the bank ‘s scheme of taking client satisfaction through invention has seen it derive value from its leading place from electronic banking including cyberspace, POS and nomadic banking.
The meeting of three failed fiscal establishment formed FC Bank, and its phoenix-like Resurrection to a marked place within the banking industry fraternity in the part and awards won, is a beginning of pride for the administration.
6.0 S.W.O.T ANALYSIS
Figure shows the SWOT analysis for FC Bank, based on this and for sustainability of competitory advantage, the undermentioned factors are important:
Investings for farther development of engineering since it is ever-evolving particularly at the strategic and tactical degree to keep FC as the leader
Quick response clip to clients ‘ petition to synchronize with industry norms
Strong image/brand and public presentation goaded civilization
High grade of flexibleness and reactivity
Improve decision-making capablenesss of front line staff and sequence planning