threats to biodiversity

 Birds in the Hawaiian ecosystem are facing extinction due to degradation and loss of their habitat from effects of animals such as the feral ungulates.

These animals eat native plants and destroy ground cover through their hooves and grazing activities. According to the bird channel website, there has been a 64% reduction in the birds’ population during the period 1973-2000. It is estimated that nearly two thirds of birds’ extinctions in the United States have happened in Hawaii’s habitats. These birds are also killed by avian malaria transmitted by mosquitoes.

In order to restore the Hawaiian ecosystem, the population of ungulate animals needs to be regulated. Birds such as the Akikiki and Akekee have already been classified among the birds facing extinction through the Endangered Species Act, (ESA).Animals such as feral pigs are usually omnivorous and chew tree trunks leaving holes. They also eat immature trees and young seedlings.

Rain water collects in these hollows creating breeding places for mosquitoes. This facilitates the spread of malaria. Their hooves also leave behind pits which may form shallow ponds on the ground that acts as breeding places. The Axis deer and feral sheep feed on native trees and seedlings that birds depend upon as sources of their food.

This has led to devastating effects on the survival of birds such as the honey creeper. Destruction of seeds and seedlings result to food shortages as a result of the disruption of the food chain. Goats and feral cattle are able to graze over large areas of land in search of pasture. They act as agents of deforestation leading to reduced numbers of bird population that live in forests.

This is due a reduction in the level of vegetation cover since cattle are heavy feeders and graze in large numbers. They don’t allow space for regeneration of new vegetation growth (Drost and Fellers). Their breeding rates are also very high and if left uncontrolled will lead to total removal of vegetation cover. Initially most of the vegetation cover consisted of lowland ecosystems that can not adapt easily to ungulate activities and therefore urgent measures needs to be taken to conserve the ecosystems.

Ungulates are also known agents of seed dispersal through their hooves and also through their feeding habits, they are able to spread seeds of invasive weeds such as the naturalized vascular alien plants which are aggressive in terms of out competing the survival of native plant species which are depended upon by birds as food (Jenkins and Maguire).Soil erosion caused by hooves of ungulates has facilitated the growth of invasive plants. Ungulates destruction of vegetative cover has made it possible for rodents like rats to survive in the destroyed vegetation. These rats prey directly on the birds and also eat eggs laid by birds.

This makes it difficult for the population of birds to grow.It can clearly be seen that measures taken to conserve the Hawaiian ecosystem will be very difficult without the elimination of ungulates. The most important measure towards successful restoration efforts of birds’ survival will be to eliminate /control the ungulate population. Measures such as monitoring the population of ungulates by creating separate areas for these animals can be achieved through fencing.

Spread of ungulates should controlled by preventing further migration of these animals to new areas within the ecosystem. The government should also fund conservation efforts towards restoring the ecosystems of birds. This can help in preventing birds from facing possible extinctions (Stone and Loope).  ReferencesBird Channel.

 Two species of Hawaiian Birds are classified as  endangered. Retrieved on March 12, 2010 from http://www.birdchannel.com/bird- news/2010/03/11/two-new-hawaiian-endangered-bird-species.

aspxDrost, C.A., and Fellers.G.

M. Non-native animals on public lands. Pages 440–442In: E. T.

LaRoe et al. (eds.), Our Living Resources: A report to the nation on thedistribution, abundance, and health of U.S.

plants, animals, and ecosystems.National Biological Service, Washington, D. C. 1995.

Retrieved fromhttp://www.sciencecases.org/hawaii/Nonative.pdf.

Jenkins, P., G.and Maguire. L.

Ungulate control in Hawaii. Research recommendations. Final Report, Hawaii Animal Control Research Consortium, 1994.Stone, C.

P., and. Loope. L.

L. Reducing negative effects of introduced animals onnative biota’s in Hawaii: What is being done, what needs doing, and the role ofnational parks. Environmental Conservation 14:245–258., 1987.

"Looking for a Similar Assignment? Order now and Get a Discount!

Allassignments.net
Calculate your paper price
Pages (550 words)
Approximate price: -

Why Work with Us

Top Quality and Well-Researched Papers

We always make sure that writers follow all your instructions precisely. You can choose your academic level: high school, college/university or professional, and we will assign a writer who has a respective degree.

Professional and Experienced Academic Writers

We have a team of professional writers with experience in academic and business writing. Many are native speakers and able to perform any task for which you need help.

Free Unlimited Revisions

If you think we missed something, send your order for a free revision. You have 10 days to submit the order for review after you have received the final document. You can do this yourself after logging into your personal account or by contacting our support.

Prompt Delivery and 100% Money-Back-Guarantee

All papers are always delivered on time. In case we need more time to master your paper, we may contact you regarding the deadline extension. In case you cannot provide us with more time, a 100% refund is guaranteed.

Original & Confidential

We use several writing tools checks to ensure that all documents you receive are free from plagiarism. Our editors carefully review all quotations in the text. We also promise maximum confidentiality in all of our services.

24/7 Customer Support

Our support agents are available 24 hours a day 7 days a week and committed to providing you with the best customer experience. Get in touch whenever you need any assistance.

Try it now!

Calculate the price of your order

Total price:
$0.00

How it works?

Follow these simple steps to get your paper done

Place your order

Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.

Proceed with the payment

Choose the payment system that suits you most.

Receive the final file

Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.

Our Services

No need to work on your paper at night. Sleep tight, we will cover your back. We offer all kinds of writing services.

Essays

Essay Writing Service

No matter what kind of academic paper you need and how urgent you need it, you are welcome to choose your academic level and the type of your paper at an affordable price. We take care of all your paper needs and give a 24/7 customer care support system.

Admissions

Admission Essays & Business Writing Help

An admission essay is an essay or other written statement by a candidate, often a potential student enrolling in a college, university, or graduate school. You can be rest assurred that through our service we will write the best admission essay for you.

Reviews

Editing Support

Our academic writers and editors make the necessary changes to your paper so that it is polished. We also format your document by correctly quoting the sources and creating reference lists in the formats APA, Harvard, MLA, Chicago / Turabian.

Reviews

Revision Support

If you think your paper could be improved, you can request a review. In this case, your paper will be checked by the writer or assigned to an editor. You can use this option as many times as you see fit. This is free because we want you to be completely satisfied with the service offered.

Get better grades effortlesslyIt’s cheaper than you might think

Effortlessly get the essays and grades you need. You can now get any essay, on any subject and at ANY deadline with just 10 minutes of your time (or less). Your professor will love you for it!