the causes and consequences of forced migration

Forced migration occurs when the individual or household has little or no choice but to migrate, this can include both internally displaced and migration across borders. Examples of such forced migration would include the migration of Sudan to Chad, and Afghanistan to Pakistan. Migrants of forced migration may include a person who is forced to flee their country in fear of losing their life which is known as a refugee; people who are forced to leave their home but stayed within the borders of their own country is known as an internally displaced person; and someone who has left their own country to seek protection in another country is an Asylum seeker. The causes of forced migration may be those of Sudan. During 2003, there is a civil war where the northern Arabs invade the southern and Darfur Africans of Sudan.

The conflict was caused by desertification of the northern land which reduced fertility, lowering yields, which led to the migration for more arable land, causing tension between the two places. On the other hand, black Africans complain that the south is not receiving enough profit from the export of oil as they own the oil wells. But the oil port is located at the north, causing conflict between north and south furthermore. These conflicts have led to a genocide led by the north where a group of Arabs would kill males and rape women, burn homes and poison wells. It is believed that they are backed up by the Sudanese government, and they are called the Janjaweeds. These causes have led people of Darfur to flee to neighboring countries or become internally displaced. Some other causes of forced migration may include those of Afghanistan. As the Soviet Union invaded in 1979, and throughout these 20 years, the Afghans drove the Soviets out but started a civil war. From 1996 to 2001, a group called Taliban took control of most of the country, and by 2001, the USA has fought the war against terrorism and removed Taliban from its power.

The reasons for the Afghans to flee was the missiles launched by the US during 1998, destroying houses and infrastructures as well as a drought during 2000-2001 and a reform to 100% Islam during the ruler of Taliban has led to 200000 flee and moving to refugee camps. Also, females are no longer able to work or attend school and must wear a burka when out, accompanied by a close male relative. As seen with the two countries above, human rights were violated alongside with civil wars and natural hazards has led people no choice but to leave their home. The consequences to people of Sudan whom are displaced have little access to food, water, shelter and clothing. Families have been separated as not everyone may be able to flee or are left behind may result traumas. As wars are going on and people are fleeing, arable land is no longer being used, leading to a further decline in yields, affecting the output and economy to decrease. Some of the consequences related to the destination, Chad, may include extreme temperatures in inadequate shelter. Twelve refugee camps have been located along the border along the eastern Chad and Darfur region. Lack of resources such as food and water may lead to malnutrition, and lack of sanitation and firewood may result in diseases such as cholera and a possible conflict. As Chad is an LEDC, seeing that the refugees getting food and water supply as well as overgrazing of cattle bought from Sudan and cutting of firewood has led to a conflict between the people of Chad and Sudan as people of Sudan has inadequate resources as well.

Other consequences may include people of Afghanistan where living under the status of refugee affecting the work permission and permanent resident. These refugees also have a poor living condition, lack of education and inadequate sanitation in Pakistan. The extreme weather, diseases spread, and malnutrition has threatened the lives of many and some had been reduced to eating grass. These additional people have pressured Pakistan in terms of demographic, resources such as water, food and wood, overgrazing due to animals brought from Afghanistan and slum areas which has developed. Consequences of the origin may include family separation, which would lead to traumas. As the examples shown above, the causes of a forced migration may include environmental factors, economical conflicts, and wars, leading to a risk in the people’s life, forcing them to flee from their home either to another country, or another area of its country. The consequences mostly put pressure to the destination, leading to economic problems as well as social problems. Therefore, when the conflicts from the area of origin have been resolved, it is encouraged that these refugees repatriate.

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