Statistical Analysis Of Father-Youth Study Essay, Research Paper
The intent of this survey is to determine the affects of drug-abusing male parents on the drug use of their immature stripling kids. A particular targeted population were chosen for this survey ; they are the kids of drug-abusing male parents who are HIV-positive or at hazard for going HIV-positive.
The major factors used to find the dependent step of stripling marihuana usage include certain drug mistreating male parent properties ( i.e. , illegal drug usage, HIV position, and methods of get bying ) , and stripling personality which is straight affected by the father-adolescent relationship and environmental factors ( see pathway to adolescent marihuanas usage ) . The focal point of this paper will be on the influences of parent-child relationship, male parent? s marihuana use and HIV position of the male parent on the stripling? s marihuana usage. These chosen spheres ( i.e. , set of related variables ) are a portion of the survey needed to find the form of relationship between father drug usage and adolescent drug usage.
This research is an extension of an earlier survey of the psychosocial factors related to the AIDS-risk behaviours and methods of get bying among male injection drug users [ e.g. , 1 ] . By concentrating on the parental attack, it is hope that this information will let a male parent to be a more effectual parent and help him in raising his kids in a manner that they wouldn? Ts need to turn to drugs to get by with life? s troubles ( i.e. , holding a drug mistreating male parent that is at hazard of going HIV positive ) .
Participants were male voluntaries recruited from AIDS clinics and methadone care intervention clinics, with a history of drug maltreatment ( i.e. , must hold engaged in either injection drug usage or another signifier of illicit drug maltreatment during the past five old ages ) . Merely those voluntaries who agreed to be interviewed along with one of their 13-20-year-old kids were recruited for engagement. In order to measure up for engagement in the survey, the work forces had to be either populating with the kid or have seen the kid at least four times in the past twelvemonth ( bulk of the kids live with the female parent ) .
A sum of one hundred and one father-child braces participated in this survey ; 71 identified themselves as Afro-american and 27 identified themselves as White ( the other three identified themselves as other ) . All male parent participants had used endovenous drugs or illicit drugs ( other than marihuanas or in add-on to marijuana ) by a non-injection path of disposal within the past five old ages. Participants that were non considered for this survey include those who had AIDS dementedness, those who were excessively ill to take part in the survey, and those who had a major psychiatric upset ( i.e. , bipolar upset or schizophrenic disorder ) . Each patient voluntarily reported his ain HIV position. Over 98 % of the topics? studies of their HIV position were confirmed by the ELISA ( Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay ) and the Western Blot trials. Of the 101 male parent participants, 38 % were HIV positive and 62 % were HIV negative. Merely kids who were already cognizant of their male parents? HIV position were qualified to take part in the survey.
After supplying informed consent, each father-child brace was interviewed for about four hours utilizing a structured questionnaire. The interviewers were either counsellors or societal workers at an AIDS clinic or a methadone care intervention clinic and had extended experience working with substance maltreaters and/or HIV positive patients. Every effort was made to fit the participants and the interviewers in footings of their cultural backgrounds. The interviews were conducted in private and the confidentiality of the information was purely preserved. Each father-child brace participant was given $ 50 to counterbalance for his/her clip and disbursals.
The graduated tables used in this survey were based on their point ( inquiry ) inter-correlation.
These graduated tables were grouped into four spheres: Father? s attributes, father-child relationship, stripling? s personality, and environmental factors.
The male parent attributes include his HIV position, illegal drug usage, and methods of get bying with HIV or the hazard of holding HIV. The step of the male parent? s illegal drug usage was derived from a combined mark of the male parent? s study of his illegal drug usage and the kid? s study of the male parent? s illegal drug usage. It is found in old surveies that by uniting the parent and kids? s responses to steps provides a greater predictability than utilizing one beginning entirely.
The father-child relationship sphere include steps of warmth/affection, rearing variables ( such as female parent? s parenting manner and male parent? s rearing manner such as regulations and subject ) , kid? s designation with both parents ( esteem, emulation ) , father-child struggle, and the sum of clip the male parent and kid spent together. Except for the kid? s designation with the male parent graduated table, which is entirely from the kid? s tonss, all the father-child relationship graduated tables were from a combined mark of each male parent? s and his kid? s questionnaires.
The adolescent personality sphere includes intolerance of aberrance, defiance, delinquency, aggression, sexual activity, and other steps of job behaviour. These steps were all taken merely from the kid? s self-reports.
The last sphere, environmental, included steps of school environment, victimization, and pack rank. These steps were besides taken merely from the studies of the kid.
Pearson correlativity coefficients were computed between the graduated tables in the two sphere chosen ( i.e. , male parent properties and father-child relationships ) and the stripling? s past-year marihuana usage. For the intent of this paper, I have chosen merely the variables from the male parent properties and father-child relationship spheres for the interaction-regression analyses. This will let us to analyze the consequence of a variable from one sphere in the presence of another sphere will hold on the kid? s marihuana use. For all the analyses, the dependant variable was the stripling? s frequence of marihuana usage during the twelvemonth before the interview.
Pearson correlativity coefficients were computed to analyze the association between the male parent attributes, the male parent kid relationship factors, and the frequence of the stripling? s past twelvemonth marihuana use. ( See table below ) .
Correlation Coefficients between Scale Measures and Frequency of Past Year Adolescent Marijuana Use
Scale Measures Adolescent Marijuana Use
Father AIDS 0.07
Father Marijuana usage 0.25*
Father Admiration-Youth -0.20*
Mother Admiration-Youth -0.36***
Father Affection-Youth -0.28**
Mother Affection-Youth -0.29**
Young person Mother Warmth-Father -0.22*
Young person Father Warmth-Father -0.18+
Father child-centerness-Youth -0.20*
Mother child-centerness-Youth -0.27**
Father Conflict-Youth 0.24*
Mother Conflict-Youth 0.26**
Young person Father Discipline-Father -0.23*
Father Extreme Autonomy-Youth 0.21*
Mother Extreme Autonomy 0.24*
Young person Father Extreme Autonomy-Father 0.17+
( Table continues )
Correlation Coefficients between Scale Measures and Frequency of Past Year Adolescent Marijuana Use
Scale Measures Adolescent Marijuana Use
Mother Rules-Youth -0.29**
Young person Mother Rules-Father -0.44***
Young person Father Rules-Father -0.22*
Father Time Spent-Youth -0.17+
Mother Time Spent-Youth -0.35***
Youth Mother Time Spent-Father -0.24*
Youth Father Time Spent-Father -0.22*
Mother Similarity-Youth -0.33***
Mother Emulation-Youth -0.37***
Father Emulation-Youth -0.20*
+p * 0.1 ; *p * 0.05 ; **p * 0.01 ; ***p * 0.001.
This tabular array consists of merely the graduated tables significantly related to the stripling
marijuana use with the exclusion of male parent AIDS.
From the tabular array above, we see that the greater the male parent? s marihuana usage the more frequent his kid will utilize marihuana. A close parent-child common fond regard, the more esteem, fondness, heat, and child-centerness the kid feel from the parents, the less frequent the kid will utilize marihuana. The greater the struggle is between the parents is associated with the kid? s more frequent usage of marihuana. In respects to rearing variables, the greater the female parent, father utmost liberty or more lenient, the more frequent the kid will utilize marihuana. It makes sense so to see that the more subject the male parent reinforces, the less likely his kid will utilize marihuana. Likewise, the greater the support of the female parent, male parent regulations, the less frequent the kid will utilize marihuana. Particularly the female parent regulations. It might be because of the fact that bulk of the kids resides with the female parents. With that said, we see that the more clip the female parent spent with the kid is strongly related with less frequent stripling marihuana usage and the more clip the male parent spent with the kid will besides assist to cut down the frequence of kid? s marihuana use. The same goes to fuss similarity and parents emulation with female parent holding the strongest consequence on the decrease of kid? s marihuana use.
Interactions of Father and Youth Risk-Protective Variables:
A series of arrested development analyses was run in which a variable from one sphere was entered foremost so a variable from another sphere, followed by the interaction term ( e.g. , father AIDS position by one of the parenting variables ) . I will discourse merely the important interactions, p * 0.05, since the others will non supply any of import information. In all instances, the dependant variable was the past twelvemonth frequence of stripling marihuana usage.
The first set of arrested development done was by taking male parent AIDS position and interacts with each of the parenting variables. Although the male parent? s AIDS position did non emerge as a important chief consequence on the kid? s marihuana usage, it did demo significance in the presence of two other variables. The two important interaction arrested development analyses are: Father AIDS Status by Father Child-centerness and Father AIDS Status by Time Spent with Mother. In the instance that the male parent does non hold AIDS, the effectivity of male parent child-centerness ( high or low ) , would non do a large difference in the stripling marihuana usage. If the male parent has AIDS and is accompanied by low father child-centerness, we have a risk/risk interaction and the stripling marihuana usage is really high. However, if father child-centerness is high, so it buffers some of the hazards to the stripling marihuana usage posed by the male parent holding AIDS. The same consequence is shown in the interaction of male parent AIDS position by mother clip spent with kid. When the male parent has AIDS, and the female parent spends small clip with the kid, so the frequence of kid marihuana use is high, where as it would be buffered by female parent disbursement more clip with the kid. The combined presence of these variables as risk/risk interactions was more strongly associated with frequent marihuanas use than each of these variables considered entirely.
The following set of arrested development was done by interacting the gender of the kid with each of the parenting variables to foretell the stripling marihuana use. The important 1s are: Sexual activity by Mother Identification, Sexual activity by Father Extreme Autonomy, Sex by Mother Extreme Autonomy, and Sex by Mother Time Spent. In all instances, male kid marijuana use in greater than female. For both male and female, if the kid identified decrepit with the female parent, marihuana usage for the kid addition ( male utilizing more than female ) . The more indulgent the male parent is, the more marihuanas use for the male kid is affected. Females non affected by every bit greatly as male. The same goes for indulgent female parents. Both male and female are affected by the clip spent with female parent. The less clip mother spent with the kids, the more extremely used the marihuana with males being affected more than females.
Another set of interaction arrested development was besides conducted to see the consequence of the parenting variables on the stripling marihuana usage differ in the two race studied ( black and white ) . The important interactions include ethnicity by male parent regulations and ethnicity by male parent? s clip spent with kid. If male parent regulations are strong, so the stripling marihuana usage in both races will be low. If the male parent regulations are weak, so the stripling marihuana usage is more at hazard for white kids than for black kids. It is highest for the three kids that identified themselves as? other? for ethnicity. The same consequence applied to beget clip spent with kid. When the male parent? s clip spent with his kid is high, the stripling marihuana usage for both races is low. While male parent? s clip spent with the kid is low is more hazardous for white kids to utilize more marihuanas than for black kids.
Finally, father marihuana usage is interacted with each of the parenting variables. Merely mother designation was important in the interaction arrested development with male parent marihuana usage variable. The secret plan show if the kid is strongly identified with the female parent, his/her marihuana usage will be low irrespective if the male parent uses marihuanas or non. When the kid shows weak designation with the female parent, kid marihuana usage will increase ; more strongly effected in the presence of male parent? s marihuana usage. Therefore female parent designation helped buffered the negative effects of the male parent? s marihuana usage hazard factor on the kid? s marihuana usage.
The overall information suggest that a strong parent-child relationship helped countervail the negative effects of certain hazard factors such as male parent holding AIDS and father utilizing marihuana. Specifically, a more fond parent-child relationship, characterized by heat, good subject, stripling? s designation with the parents ( female parent in peculiar ) , and a non-conflict relationship were related to less frequent marihuana usage by the kid. We can so state that male parents who spends a good trade of clip with the kids were less likely to hold childs that use drugs.
The risk/protective synergistic analyses show that white male kids are more at hazard of marihuana usage than white females or black kids provided that no rearing variable buffers the negative consequence. This survey stresses the importance of rearing manner and parental drug maltreatment impacting the kid? s marihuana use. Programs should be established to help the male parents every bit good as the female parents in their parenting functions to cut down the and perchance forestall marihuana use for these kids.
This is a cross-sectional survey where both the male parent and his kid are interviewed at the same clip. A longitudinal survey is being conducted at this clip to see how the stripling marihuana usage would be different over clip. We wouldn? Ts have entree to this information until it is complete. A larger sample will besides be provided.