In 1839, Apolinario de la Cruz went to Manila to pursue priestly vocation under the Dominican order. He was not accepted on the gro8und that he was an Indio for the reason of all religious orders was closed to indios. In June 1840, Apolinario, known as Hermano Pule returned to Lucban, Tayabas Province, and founded the Confradia de San Jose, a nationalist fellowship which fostered the praise of Christian virtues.
On November 1, 1841, LT.Col.Joaquin Huet, launched a massive assault on Alitao, killing hundreds of defenseless old men and women and children. Hermano Pule was captured the following evening at Barrio Ibanga and was executed on November 4, 1841. 24. MUSLIM WARS (1578-1898)
The Spaniards made attempts to subdue the inhabitants of Mindanao by deploying its military forces in the South. The Muslims on the other hand, valiantly resisted and repulsed the colonizers. They retaliated by raiding territories under Spanish rule with varying degrees of intensity. The war between the Muslim Filipinos and the Spaniards lasted for more than 300 years.
The Muslim wars were brought about by the Spanish invasion of Mindanao and Sulu, preservation of Islam, and the love of adventure arising from the spoils of wars. In 1597, the Spanish colonizers tried to seize Jolo and force the sultanate into submission. The Governor ordered the pacification of the place and payment of tribute by inhabitants to the colonial government. 25. THE RISE OF FILIPINO NATIONALISM
Nationalism was said to have rooted from a strong feeling among populace that they belong to the same race. Such sentiment has not yet existed in the Philippines prior to the 19th century. Although the cultural traits of the early Filipinos had striking similarities, their linguistic differences as well as the local autonomy of each political unit in the archipelago barely yielded to the development of this national sentiment. The absence of adequate means of transportation and communication made the situation even more dismal. The following have been regarded in history as factors that gave rise to Filipino Nationalism: 1. Spread of liberalism. When Spain exposed the Philippines to international commerce in the late 18th and 19th century, liberal ideas from Europe filtered in. the thoughts of political philosophers were made known through books and periodicals brought into the country by men from foreign ports. 2. Sentiment against the principales. There was a mounting dissatisfaction against the principales accommodated as intermediaries of the Spanish government from the inception of its colonial rule. 3. Racial prejudice. The Spaniards commonly regarded the Filipino natives as belonging to the inferior race and haughtily called them as indios.
The preconceived notion of the Spanish colonizers that the natives could not rise beyond their limited intelligence instigated the enlightened Filipinos to struggle for equality. 4. Cultural changes. The educational reforms of 1863 dramatically improved the standards of education in the primary level. With the implementation of a new education system, qualified Filipinos were able to pursue higher education. 5. Secularization controversy. The mandatory provision of the council of Trent affirmed that secular priests be appointed to administer the parishes in the colony. Due to lack of secular priests, pope pius V issued in 1567, upon the request of King Philip II, the Exponi Nobis, which allowed the regular clergy to serve as parish priests without diocesan authorization and be exempted from bishops’ authority. 6. Cavite mutiny of 1872. In 1868, a revolution led by the liberals in Spain deposed Queen Isabella II and gave rise to the provisional republic of spain. With the victory of the Spanish revolution, many colonial officials with democratic iseals were sent to Manila, which included Governor General Carlos Maria de la Torre in 1869.
La Solidaridad (solidarity)
A purely Filipino organization
Established in Barcelona on December 31,1888
Galiciano Apacible was the president and Graciano Lopez Jaena as vice-president. To make known of the objectives of their propaganda, Lopez Jaena founded a fortnightly newspaper, it was entitled la solidaridad. It was printed in Barcelona from February 15- October 31, 1889 then in Madrid, from November 15,1889 until its last issue on November 15, 1895. 27. THE
Some of the men of la liga Filipina found out that peaceful agitation for reforms was not enough. So they opted for the country’s freedom more than anything else. Andres Bonifacio was one of them. This faction pledged to continue supporting the propaganda movement in Spain.
One of the night of July 7, 1892, Bonifacio and his friends met secretly at deodato arellano’s house. They decided to form a secret revolutionary society, modeled in part on Masonic order called kataastaasang kagalang-galangang katipunan ng mga anak ng bayan otherwise known as K.K.K or katipunan, decided to national independence through armed revolution.
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