Pragmatism Vs. Idealism ( A Man For All Seasons ) Essay, Research Paper
Morality is frequently overpowered by mercenary chases. In A Man for All Seasons, Robert Bolt shows the corruptness of those who put self involvement above all other values. His usage of such characters as Thomas Cromwell, Richard Rich, Chapuys and Wolsey help convey this
corruptness. There is yet another character who is a pragmatist that Bolt successfully represents. Thomas More is an dreamer every bit good as a pragmatist, for he is prepared to give up everything for his beliefs and takes all safeguards possible to do his instance watertight. It is through this pragmatism and idealism that Robert Bolt shows the corruptness of the times.
Thomas More believed in his ideals to such an extent that he was prepared to give his life for them, if the demand arrived. He was a steadfast truster in the separation of Church and State. When the King tried to get down the reformation of England and the Church by a simple Act of Parliament called the Act of Supremacy, Thomas refused to subscribe it. He believed that the indictment of the King was grounded in an Act of Parliament which is straight abhorrent to jurisprudence
of God. The King in Parliament can non confer he Supremacy of the Church because it is a Religious Domination! And more to this the unsusceptibility of the Church is promised both in Magna Carta and the Kings ain Coronation Oath! ( Bolt, p. 92 ) The matrimony was yet another ground why More refused to subscribe the Act. He knew that if he signed it so he would accept the King as the Supreme Head of Church and therefore give the King the power to distribute with the dispensation which to him was against his ethical motives and faith. Of class the matrimony was associated with other things -attack on the abbeys, the whole Reformation policy-to which More was violently opposed. When told by Norfolk that his parish garb is a discourtesy to the King
and his office. More answers that the service of God is non a dishonour to any office ( Bolt, p.26 ) Even though he loves the King to decease as proved by Mores trueness towards him, he values his
morality and faith more. For his scruples is a small country where I must govern myself ( Bolt, p.34 ) . His place is absolutely described in his belief that when solons forsake their ain
private scruples for the interest of their public responsibilities … they lead their state by a short path to chaos. His idealism is clearly shown in his refusal to take the curse for the curse to him was an
invitation to God to move as a informant every bit good as a justice and the effect of a bearing false witness was damnation. He is a adult male who is anchored to his rules ( Bolt, p.36 ) . The issue is non about what other people see his beliefs as but non that I believe it, but that I believe it … ( Bolt, p.53 ) . He needs to be true to his scruples and can non allow other people interfere with these determinations, for when he faces his Godhead it is he entirely who will reply Him. In affairs of scruples, the loyal topic is more delimited to be loyal to his scruples than to any other thing ( Bolt, p.89 ) Even towards his tragic terminal he is so certain of his righteousness that he advises the headman to be non afraid of your office. You send me to God. He will non decline one who is to blithe to travel to him ( Bolt, p.94 ) Therefore, it becomes clear that Thomas entirely possess the moral strabismus that no other character possesses in the drama.
Thomas More is a pragmatist with a attorneies head and a loyal bosom. He was able to anticipate the hereafter and cognize precisely what could be used against him subsequently on. When Thomas More realized that the Ag goblet that he received from the adult female was a payoff he instantly got rid of it. He gave it to Rich, for he knew the type of individual Rich was, and gave the adult female an impeccably right judgement. Not surprisingly, the goblet was subsequently used against him but due to More s actions, it held small substance. More s trust in the jurisprudence was his trust in society; his despairing sheltering beneath the signifiers of the jurisprudence was his finding to stay in the shelter
of society. To him the jurisprudence was a wood in which he could conceal and ne’er be found; it was a causeway upon which, so long as he keeps to it, a citizen may walk safely ( Bolt, p. 89 ) Therefore, with this belief More took every action to non to pin down himself but instead be protected by the jurisprudence. He avoided all events that may be misinterpreted as lese majesty. When Signor Chapuys came to More to inform him that the people in Yorkshire were ready for opposition by force of weaponries,
More intentionally misinterpreted it as Metaphorical weaponries. The aegis of righteousness and the helmet of redemption. ( Bolt, p. 51 ) He is able to see right through people and he knows he has
undercover agents in the house such as the steward looking for some grounds against him and therefore he protects himself discontinue smartly. Besides, every bit shortly as Norfolk arrives, More warns him of the rise in
Yorkshire, therefore turn outing his trueness to the King and protecting himself. On Chapuys 2nd reaching, he offers More a missive from the King of Spain, he doesn t lay a finger on it, for so he
will be allying with the enemy. He farther goes on to demo it to Alice and everyone else that the seal has non been broken, therefore demoing that he has non read the missive. Even in the instance of the
Maid of Kent, More writes to her reding her to abstain from tampering with the personal businesss of Princes and the State ( Bolt, p. 67 ) . As a safeguard, More gets it notarized and therefore it is grounds in favour of him, non against him. Other so declining every possible manner of being unpatriotic, More utilizations silence as his chief scheme. He was a adult male with a steadfast sense of his ain ego. He knew where he began and left off, what country of himself he could uncover to the invasions of his enemies, and what to the invasions of those he loved. He refuses to speak to anyone or declare his place on the Kings divorce. He knows that anything he says canbe used against him as lese majesty and therefore repeatedly says that he will reply to the King entirely. The corruptness of the times is apparent when, after neglecting to happen anything on More, Cromwell decides to set something in the closet ( Bolt, p. 69 ) . The Torahs that More hid behind are
now twisted in such a manner that he is charged with ungratefulness and sentenced to decease and it is
this individual event that Thomas More fails to anticipate.
Richard Rich, Thomas Cromwell, Chapuys, and Wolsey are other pragmatist who use
their foresight of the hereafter for personal power and promotion. Richard Rich is a really underhand
and ambitious adult male. H
vitamin E wants to be popular for when he is offered the instructors occupation he remarks
who would cognize it? ( Bolt, p.6 ) It is apparent that Richard is capable of graft when he says
But every adult male has his monetary value ( Bolt, p. 4 ) Subsequently on during the drama, due to his hungriness for celebrity
and money, he sells out to Cromwell and lies about More under curse. Richard ascent on other
people to acquire to where he wants to be. Every measure that Richard goes up, Thomas goes a measure
down. At the terminal, Richard gets what he wants. He wanted a gown like Thomas and now he has
it, symbolically intending his position and place. Cromwell is another scavenger who is a
pragmatist. He knows precisely how to acquire what he wants. He is like the Kings ears, really barbarous
and unsafe. He is a adult male for whom the terminals justify the agencies and therefore he feels no sorrow in
holding More destroyed. He knows that in dark corners can lie ears waiting to hear, therefore he is
really careful in be aftering his confederacy. In the test, Cromwell wagess Rich for lying about the
More and sends off the lone two people that would be able to salvage the More. Chapuys is a
mirror image of Cromwell. Just like Cromwell is King Henry s ears, Chapuys is those of the
King of Spain. He hunts around for information by paying the steward and tries his best to acquire
More on his side, so subsequently he himself may be rewarded. Last but non least, Wolsey is another
pragmatist who is a self helping adult male. Even though he is a cleric he has no moral
scruples. He wants to be the Catholic Pope merely for the mercenary instead than religious grounds. He
is supposed to be a holy adult male yet he speaks coarseness. When speaking about Queen Catherine he
calls her every bit waste as a brick and when turn toing Anne he refers to her as a fertile thing
( Bolt, p. 12 ) He even sacrifices his scruples for the interest of trueness to the King and says that
good solons shouldn t possess that atrocious moral strabismus ( Bolt, p. 11 ) and therefore, through this
it is apparent that Wolsey is morally corrupt. Thus, Richard Rich, Thomas Cromwell, Chapuys,
and Wolsey are like Canis aureuss who follow the King because he is their king of beasts, and so they could
pick up the left over pieces from him.
The Common Man is the supreme pragmatist throughout the drama. He functions as a 1
adult male Greek chorus who is an outside perceiver every bit good as a observer. As the steward, the
common adult male undercover agents on his maestro for the interest of money. He is a pragmatist for he merely tells
them things that are common cognition! But now they ve given money for it and everyone
wants value for his money. When he realizes that his place may be in problem he will travel
deaf, , blind, and dumb. This shows his pragmatism for he knows precisely what he wants, every bit good as,
his restrictions and parametric quantities. He will non leak any information that may acquire him into problem.
The steward can besides see through people. When presenting characters he remarks on them.
Lady Margaret, my maestro s girl; lovely, truly lovely ( Bolt, p. 7 ) He besides remarks that
Richard Rich is non a righteous individual. Therefore, he is able to see through people into their deeper
characters and can bode ulterior events. When Thomas More says that he will lose the
steward, Matthew is able to look through More and recognize that it is a prevarication for he says what s in
me for him to lose ( Bolt, p.56 ) and therefore looks out for himself when he refuses a salary cut. Yet
another illustration of the common adult males pragmatism is his refusal to function the More any longer. Before,
the boatsman used to give More drives on his boat, but every bit shortly as the King ordered that More non
be served, the boatsman stopped replying to Thomas calls. Even as a prison guard, the common adult male
is able to look into the hereafter and therefore salvage himself from devastation. When he is told that if he
studies any statements made by More, he will be given 50 guineas he is tempted. But subsequently, he
realizes that Fifty guineas isn T tempting; 50 guineas is dismaying. If he d left it as cursing … ;
but fifty- that s serious money. If its worth that much now its worth my cervix soon. I want
no portion of it. They can screen it out between them. I feel my hearing loss coming on. ( Bolt, pp.
78-79 ) Here the common adult male s pragmatism is clearly shown because every bit shortly as he realizes that
he may be seting himself in danger he becomes deaf, blind and dumb, for he says I am a
field and simple adult male who merely wants to maintain out of problem. ( Bolt, p.85 ) Even as a steward he
sees the hereafter, My maestro Thomas More would give anything to anyone. Some say that s good
and some say that s bad, but I say he can t assist it-and that s bad … because someday person s
traveling to inquire him for something that he wants to maintain; and he ll be out of pattern. ( Bolt, p.10 )
Here he sees how More will be asked to give his scruples for trueness to the King and he
habit able to make that and as a consequence, be terminated. When the common adult male transforms into the
publican, he merely emphasizes his pragmatism. He realizes that anything he says may be used
against him, so he merely answers to Cromwell by stating I don t understand, sir. ( Bolt, p.40 )
The common adult male would instead be a unrecorded rat, than a dead king of beasts. ( Bolt, p.73 ) He is a
representative of us, the people. If we should knock into one another, acknowledge me. ( Bolt,
In decision, with the exclusion of Thomas More, moral corruptness is apparent
throughout the drama. Robert Bolt uses the characters of Richard Rich, Thomas Cromwell,
Chapuys, and Wolsey to portray how corruptness comes to those who put self involvement above all
values. He uses pragmatism and idealism to demo how each character achieves his ends, and
how even though More took all safeguards possible, he wasn t able to get away the corruptness of
society. He presents Thomas More s idealism as the lone admirable quality in that category of
society, for at that clip the upper category were highly corrupt. It is through this idealism that
Thomas more becomes hero and a saint.
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