Population Genetics and Human Evolution

Population Genetics and Human Evolution

Complete the following discussions:

The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium states that allele frequencies remain constant across generations unless certain influences are introduced, such as nonrandom matings or mutations.

  • Describe the Hardy-Weinberg principle.
  • Are there influences that deviate from the principle? If so, what are they? If no, why?

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) profiling is a tool used in forensic investigation and paternity testing. This technique is often used by forensic scientists to identify individuals on the basis of their DNA profiles.

  • How is DNA profiling performed?
  • What are some of the novel uses of DNA profiling, other than those described in your textbook?

Sickle-cell disease is an example of balanced polymorphism as carriers of this disease are protected against malaria.

  • Describe an example of balanced polymorphism, other than sickle-cell disease, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, phenylketonuria (PKU), prior protein mutation, cystic fibrosis (CF), and Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS).

Genetic ancestry testing is becoming popular as more and more people are trying to trace their ancestry. Two different types of tests are generally offered, mitochondrial DNA, which traces maternal lineages, and Y chromosome testing, which traces paternal lineages.

  • Does genetic ancestry testing provide a complete picture of a person’s heritage? If so, how? If not, why not?

MODEL ANSWER 

The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is a principle stating that the genetic variation in a population will remain constant from one generation to the next in the absence of disturbing factors. When mating is random in a large population with no disruptive circumstances, the law predicts that both genotype and allele frequencies will remain constant because they are in equilibrium.

The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium can be disturbed by a number of forces, including mutations, natural selection, nonrandom mating, genetic drift, and gene flow. For instance, mutations disrupt the equilibrium of allele frequencies by introducing new alleles into a population. Similarly, natural selection and nonrandom mating disrupt the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium because they result in changes in gene frequencies. This occurs because certain alleles help or harm the reproductive success of the organisms that carry them. Another factor that can upset this equilibrium is genetic drift, which occurs when allele frequencies grow higher or lower by chance and typically takes place in small populations. Gene flow, which occurs when breeding between two populations transfers new alleles into a population, can also alter the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium…………PLACE ORDER FOR A COMPLETE AND CUSTOMIZED ANSWER ………………………

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