personality psy essay

Which of the following is NOT one of the layers of consciousness proposed by Sigmund Freud?
Jonas was filling out a job application and was required to disclose his home address, social security number and email address. According to Freud, this kind of general information in our memory that can be easily recalled is stored in the ________.
preconscious mind
When Freud referred to the sexual drive of babies and young children, to what was he really referring?
the fact that children focus on their bodies to give them physical pleasure
Derrick is an executive with a large financial firm. Any time his investments do poorly, he throws temper tantrums and breaks things. Then he starts barking orders at his secretary. Which personality structure would Freud say is exerting control?
According to Freud, the reality principle is ______.
so safe and successfully
The superego develops ____________.
during the preschool years
Anthony is sick of writing papers and studying for tests, but he knows he needs a college degree if he wants to be successful in his chosen career. So every morning Anthony gives himself a dressing down – in essence yelling at himself – to make himself get out of bed and go to classes, and every evening he does the same thing to get himself to do his work. According to Freud, which personality structure is in control here?
Carolyn took home some printer paper from the office. Later, she felt guilty for stealing it so she brought some paper to work to replace what she took. Freud would suggest that Carolyn’s ________ was influencing her motives and behavior.
Which of Freud’s personality structures can be thought of as housing the human conscience?
According to Freud, when the realities of life are in conflict with someone’s conscience or selfish desires, it results in a(n) ________.
Mahmoud was just told that his father has cancer. Mahmoud’s first response is that there must be a mistake and he demands that the doctor repeat his tests. Which defense mechanism is at work here?
According to Freud, personality develops through a series of psychosexual stages. During infancy, the psychosexual stage is called the _____________.
oral stage
Sigmund Freud proposed that little boys’ fears that their fathers may retaliate against them for forbidden sexual and aggressive impulses may lead to ________.
) castration anxiety
According to Freud, the stage in which children develop a marked attachment to the parent of the opposite sex and become jealous of the same-sex parent is the ______.
phallic stage
Which of Freud’s psychosexual stages is marked by successful formation of mature sexual relationships?
Who of the following was NOT a neo-Freudian?
a) Horney
According to Karen Horney, what causes us to develop a neurotic personality?
without love and affection
What was the basis for Freud’s development of his theory of the Oedipus conflict
a) He did not believe that the stories his female patients told about having been sexually abused by their

fathers and other family members were real memories.
Skinner and Watson believed that personality is the result of
classical and operant conditioning and observational learning.
Ruth-Ann just graduated from high school; she is trying out for the soccer team at the college that she will attend in the fall. She knows that it will be more competitive than her high school team, but she believes in her ability to succeed and plans to practice all summer. Bandura would say that Ruth might have an edge over some competitors simply because she has
high self-efficacy
The source a person believes to be exerting control over life’s events is called ________.
locus of control
One of the main differences between the psychoanalytic view and the social cognitive view is
When you accept someone – faults and all – regardless of whether or not you like the

individual or approve of his or her lifestyle, Rogers suggests that you are exhibiting ________.
unconditional positive regard
Unconditional positive regard is MOST important to the theory of ______.
According to Rogers, people brought up with unconditional positive regard ______.
A relatively consistent characteristic that exists across situations is called ________.
According to Freud, the major accomplishment for children in the latency stage is
Which two researchers are associated with the Five Factor model, also known as the Big Five
Costa and McCrae
What are the Big Five personality traits?
openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism
Which of these is an acronym that could help you remember the Big Five traits?
Travis is a participant in the X-games every year, which features events that are high flying and exhilarating to watch or participate in, but also very dangerous to the competitors. Because Travis is willing to take chances with his health to get the adrenaline rush from these sorts of events, Cost and McCrae would argue that he ranks high on which of the five factors?
If Sylvia is described as trustworthy, altruistic and tender-minded, then she probably is fairly high on the Big Five superfactor known as ________.
Adoption studies focusing on the heritability of traits have _____________.
confirmed in twin studies
Which of the following is least likely to be associated with a collectivist culture
Tests in which people are asked to tell what they see in ambiguous or unstructured stimuli are called
Using Hofstede’s terms, how would you describe a cultural personality in which the majority of the members of the culture accept that power is in the hands of the few?
high in power distance
Freud’s refusal to believe his patients who said they were sexually molested as children is an example of
interview bias
What is one criticism of projective tests?
low on validity and reliable
The categorical approach to personality disorders assumes that:
problematic personality traits are either present or absent
What is one purpose of the validity scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)?
to detect tendencies of test takers to present themselves in a favorable light
Devon is taking a personality test that includes a long list of questions. For each question, Devon must choose from a limited set of answers. Devon is taking a

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