mass media

Mass Media includes all the “tools” we have for communicating with large numbers of people… television, radio, film, on-line services, magazines and newspapers. All carry messages that reach masses of people in contrast to letters, telephone calls and one-to-one conversations known as interpersonal media. Aerial A radio antenna, especially one suspended in or extending into the air. Advertisement Advertising is a form of communication that typically attempts to persuade potential customers to purchase or to consume more of a particular brand of product or service.

Many advertisements are designed to generate increased consumption of those products and services through the creation and reinforcement of “brand image” and “brand loyalty”. Blog A blog (a contraction of the term “Web log”) is a Web site, usually maintained by an individual with regular entries of commentary, descriptions of events, or other material such as graphics or video. Entries are commonly displayed in reverse-chronological order. “Blog” can also be used as a verb, meaning to maintain or add content to a blog. Many blogs provide commentary or news on a particular subject; others function as more personal online diaries.

Blogosphere Blogosphere is a collective term encompassing all blogs and their interconnections. It is the perception that blogs exist together as a connected community (or as a collection of connected communities) or as a social network. Broadcast Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video signals which transmit programs to an audience. The audience may be the general public or a relatively large sub-audience, such as children or young adults. Television and radio programs are distributed through radio broadcasting or cable , often both simultaneously.

Column A column is a recurring piece or article in a newspaper, magazine or other publication. Columns are written by columnists. What differentiates a column from other forms of journalism is that it meets each of the following criteria: * It is a regular feature in a publication * It is personality-driven by the author * It explicitly contains an opinion or point of vie Editorial An editorial, leader (US), or leading article (UK) is an article in a newspaper or magazine that expresses the opinion of the editor, editorial board, or publisher.

The editorial board is a group of editors, usually at a print publication, who dictate the tone and direction that the publication’s editorials will take. In much of the English-speaking world, editorials are typically not written by the regular reporters of the news organization, but are instead collectively authored by a group of individuals High-tech politics The current American political system in which the behavior of citizens and policy makers, as well as the political agenda itself, is increasingly shaped by technology. Investigative journalism

The use of detective-like reporting methods to unearth scandals. Journalism Journalism is the craft of conveying news, descriptive material and comment via a widening spectrum of media. These include newspapers, magazines, radio and television, the Internet and, more recently, the cell phone. Journalists—be they writers, editors or photographers; broadcast presenters or producers—serve as the chief purveyors of information and opinion in contemporary mass society. “News is what the consensus of journalists determines it to be. ” Journalist

A journalist (also called a newspaperman) is a person who practices journalism, the gathering and dissemination of information about current events, trends, issues, and people while striving for non-bias viewpoint. Reporters are one type of journalist. They create reports as a profession for broadcast or publication in mass media such as newspapers, television, radio, magazines, documentary film, and the Internet. Reporters find sources for their work, their reports can be either spoken or written, and they are often expected to report in the most objective and unbiased way to serve the public good.

A columnist is a journalist who writes pieces that appear regularly in newspapers or magazines. Magazine Magazines, periodicals, glossies or serials are publications, generally published on a regular schedule, containing a variety of articles, generally financed by advertising, by a purchase price, by pre-paid magazine subscriptions, or all three. They are published weekly, biweekly, monthly … Media bias Media bias is a term used to describe a real or perceived bias of journalists and news producers within the mass media, in the selection of which events will be reported and how they are covered.

The term “media bias” usually refers to a pervasive or widespread bias contravening the standards of journalism, rather than the perspective of an individual journalist or article. The direction and degree of media bias in various countries is widely disputed, although its causes are both practical and theoretical. Media events An event that is staged primarily for the purpose of simply being covered. News News is any new information or information on current events which is presented by print, broadcast, Internet, or word of mouth to a third party or mass audience.

News, the reporting of current information on television and radio, and in newspapers and magazines. Newspaper A newspaper is a written publication containing news, information and advertising, usually printed on low-cost paper called newsprint. General-interest newspapers often feature articles on political events, crime, business, art/entertainment, society and sports. Most traditional papers also feature an editorial page containing columns which express the personal opinions of writers. Supplementary sections may contain advertising, comics, coupons, and other printed media.

Newspapers are most often published on a daily or weekly basis, and they usually focus on one particular geographic area where most of their readers live. Despite recent setbacks in circulation and profits, newspapers are still the most iconic outlet for news and other types of written journalism. Press conferences Meetings with reporters. Press – “the press” The media that includes television, radio, newspapers, magazines, wire services, and on-line services, among others. Print media That portion of the mass media which include newspapers and magazines. Propaganda

Propaganda is the dissemination of information aimed at influencing the opinions or behaviors of large numbers of people. As opposed to impartially providing information, propaganda in its most basic sense presents information in order to influence its audience. Propaganda often presents facts selectively (thus lying by omission) to encourage a particular synthesis, or gives loaded messages in order to produce an emotional rather than rational response to the information presented. The desired result is a change of the cognitive narrative of the subject in the target audience to further a political agenda.

Trial balloons Information leaked for the purpose of determining what the political reaction will be. Talking heads A shot of a person’s face talking directly to the camera. Linkage institutions The channels or access points through which issues and people’s policy preferences get on the government’s policy agenda. Television Television (TV) is a widely used telecommunication medium for transmitting and receiving moving images, either monochromatic (“black and white”) or color, usually accompanied by sound. “Television” may also refer specifically to a television set, television programming or television transmission.

The word is derived from mixed Latin and Greek roots, meaning “far sight”: Greek tele (???? ), far, and Latin visio, sight (from video, vis- to see, or to view in the first person). Tabloids A tabloid is a newspaper of small format giving the news in condensed form, usually with illustrated, often sensational material Yellow journalism The term used to describe sensational news reporting. Mass media II Bandwagon The desire to be respected accepted or be part of an action like everybody else. Controversty Stirs up thoughts and feelings about a topic which people have strong opinions

Cross promotional advertising Ads that involve two or more companies who collaborate in a marketing campaign Editorial An article giving the editors comments on current affairs. Fact Something that can be measured or tested; proven. Glittering generalities A persuasion technique used o influence a consume by using positive, emotional appeals that make the consumer feel as a glittering star. Juxtaposition The placement of one thing in relationship to another Lifestyle advertising And advertisement that provides a glimpse from a particular lifestyle or way of living Negative connotation

The use of negative words or images based on how ad producers believe audiences will respond emotionally to certain connotation Nielsen ratings A research company that estimates/ measures the audience of a particular tv program Opinion Generalized statement expressing the thoughts/feelings of an individual. Plain folks technique Straightforward thinkers- people make choices based on what they think is best or most effective. Positive connotation The use of positive words or images based on how ad producers believe audiences will respond emotionally to certain connotation

Product placement The use of brand name products in feature films and television productions Propaganda The spread of ideas for the purpose of influencing human behavior. Public service announcement The use of advertising techniques to communicate a particular pro-social message, often concerning aspects of lifestyle and health. Slice of life advertising The advertisement is a mini story with characters, conflict and the advertisers product. Subtext An unstated message that is implied or suggested through the use of symbols- characters, words, images, music, special effects, and more.

Suspense The feeling produced in a viewer that makes them feel uncertain about an outcome. Target audience A group of viewers toward whom a specific program, commercial, or ad is advertised- the advertiser hopes to influence either by shaping opinion or motivation behaviors. Testimonial advertising Well-known person or celebrity endorses or promotes a product. Transfer To pass from one to the other. Urban legend Folk narratives that are usually false, but on rare occasions prove to be true; circulates by word of mouth. Mass Media III Marketplace of ideas

The concept that ideas and theories compete for acceptance among the public New media Technologies, such as the Internet, that blur the line between media sources and create new opportunities for the dissemination of news and other information Print media Traditional form of mass media comprising of newspapers, magazines, newsletters, and journals Broadcast media Television, radio, cable, and satellite services Network An association of broadcast stations (radio or television) that share programming through a financial arrangement Affiliates

Local television stations that carry the programming of a national network Wire service An electronic delivery of news gathered by the news service’s correspondents and sent to all member news organizations Narrowcasting The targeting of specialized audiences by the media Commercial bias The tendency of the media to make coverage and programming decisions based on what will attract a large audience and maximize profits Civic journalism (social responsibility theory/public advocate model) A movement among journalists to be responsive to citizen input in determining what news stories to cover Libertarian view

Idea that the media should be allowed to publish information that they deem newsworthy or of interest to public without regard to the social consequences of doing so News management The efforts of a politician’s staff to control news about the politician Revolving door The tendency of public officials, journalists, and lobbyists to move between public and private sector jobs Investigative reporting Type of journalism in which reporters thoroughly investigate a subject matter (often involving a scandal) to inform the public, correct an injustice, or expose an abuse Muckraking

Investigating and exposing societal ills such as corruption in politics or abuses in business Priming The way in which the media’s emphasis on particular characteristics of people, events, or issues influences the public’s perception of those people, events, or issues Framing Process through which the media emphasize particular aspect of a news story, thereby influencing the public’s perception of the story Horse-race journalism The media’s focus on the competitive aspects of politics, such as candidates’ polling numbers, rather than on actual policy proposals and political decisions Selective perception

The phenomenon of filtering incoming information through personal values and interests Pundit A professional observer and commentator on politics Sound bite A brief, snappy excerpt from a public figure’s speech that is easy to repeat on the news Party presses Newspapers popular in the late nineteenth century that were highly partisan and often influenced by political party machines Penny press Cheap newspapers containing sensationalized stories sold to members of the working class in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries Technology gap (digital divide)

The differences in access to and mastery of information and communication technology between segments of the community (typically for socioeconomic, educational, or geographical reasons) Feeding frenzy Excessive press coverage of an embarrassing or scandalous subject Earned media coverage Airtime provided free of charge to candidates for political office Press release A written statement that is given to the press to circulate information or an announcement News briefing A public appearance by a governmental official for the purpose of releasing information to the press News conference

A media event, often staged, where reporters ask questions of celebrities or politicians Pseudo-events Events that appear spontaneous but are in fact staged and scripted by public relations experts to appeal to the news media or the public Agenda setting Featuring specific stories in the media to focus attention on particular issues Media effects Influence of news sources on public opinion Gatekeepers Group or individuals who determine which stories will receive attention in the media and from which perspective Spin

An interpretation of a politician’s words or actions, designed to present a favorable image Off the record Information provided to a journalist that will not be released to the public On the record Information provided to a journalist that can be released and attributed by name to the source Deep background Information provided to a journalist that will not be attributed to any source On background Information provided to a journalists that will not be attributed to a named source Leaks Confidential information secretly revealed to the press

Trial balloon An official leak of a proposal to determine public reaction to it without risk Political accountability The democratic principle that political leaders must answer to the public for their actions Competitive news markets Locales with two or more news organizations that can check each other’s neutrality and accuracy of reporting News monopoly A single news firm that controls all the media in a given market Libel Publication of false and malicious material that defames an individual’s reputation (see New York Times Co. v.

Sullivan) Prior censorship Forbidding publication of material considered objectionable (see Near v. Minnesota) Equal time rule FCC rule that requires offering equal airtime in the broadcast media for all major candidates competing for political office Fairness doctrine Policy that required television and radio broadcasters to provide time for opposing viewpoints on controversial issues so as to ensure fair and balanced reporting; formally abolished in 1987 (see FCC v. League of Women Voters) Collocations and Phrases News To call election

To officially announce that election will take place. e. g. PM CALLS APRIL ELECTION To secure slim majority To win a small majority. e. g. PARTY SECURES SLIM MAJORITY To present show of unity To publicly appear to be united. e. g. PARTZ PRESENTS SHOW OF UNITY Regime toppled (Journalistic) made to fall (of regime or government) e. g. UNPOPULAR REGIME TOPPLED To proclaim victory To make an official announcement of victory. e. g. LEFT PROCLAIMS VICTORY To deliver speech (Formal, journalistic) to make or give a speech. e. g. PRESIDENT DELIVERS KEY SPEECH News Report

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