This system is also seed to improve communication between departments. This system contains a structured repository for holding information, i. E. A database, and employs a variety of search tools, enabling the system users to find answers to their questions efficiently. 1. Components of a SMS There are seven (7) components: 1 . 2. 1 Strategy Part of the organization’s key issues and needs should be the SMS, so it can give a framework for addressing these. 1. 2. Actors Central to the SMS is people (the users). There are different roles for carrying out various activities involved in a SMS. 12. 3 Infrastructure
In order to work properly, a SMS must have a structure. 1. 2. Off nationality A SMS enhances projects that are knowledge-intensive e. G. , creation (or acquisition), evaluation, organization, distribution, maintenance, edition and application of knowledge. 1. 25 Delivery A SMS requires a knowledge management service 1. 2. Content A SMS will store content to aid in functionality 1. 2. Continuous Improvement A SMS will be continually reviewed and maintained to ensure it meets business requirements. 1. Oho does a SMS work? (in relation to call centre) Knowledge Management Systems as stated by owe. Mom (2013) ‘provide customer service operators with a great deal of information about each customer. ‘ The information include open orders, billing, inquires and complaints. Such systems used in call centers are known as Customer Service Systems. Part of this system is the Technical Support Staff. The Service Operators would pass on the complaints of the customers to the technical staff and the customer would liaise with the technician. According to owe. Com (2013) ‘with each question asked by the technician, and answered by the customer, the knowledge management system comes closer to a conclusion. This indicates the kind of immunization between the operators and technicians. The customer is then given an explanation of the cause of the problem and the way to fix it. Another part of the system is the Finance Department, because the contact operators need to communicate with that department to provide customer data relating to billing. 1. Benefits of using a SMS in Call Centre Implementing a knowledge management system in the call centre would be very beneficial as it would rectify the problems plaguing the current information system.
As explained above, such a system is mainly applied to customer service contact centers. The system would greatly improve communication between the customer service department and all other departments of the call center. There would not be any software failure due to the volume of data for processing. This is because it has an inherent database and typical SMS software. The technical department would be able to receive relevant data from the customer service department in order for them to resolve any issues or complaints the customer may have with their electricity service.
One of greatest dilemmas in running call centers, as stated by Hoot. Gob (2012) is ‘making sure customers are getting insistent, accurate and timely information. ‘ Seeing that Customer Service is the purpose of the center, handling customers and their data comes before the issues of other departments. The finance department the of call center and system would function more efficiently as it would receive relevant customer bills and payments from the service department for processing and it would be better able to process data for staff throughout all departments.
The Human Resource Department would receive all relevant staff data. The fact that these departments would receive such data indicates that communication is mission critical. The system would greatly improve communication between departments and thereby greatly reduce the risk of failure by employing a variety of efficient search tools included in its software and generating relevant comprehensive reports, which would be used by each department. Lastly, the management team of the center would be better equipped with those same reports and would have a better overview and understanding of all operations of the center. . 5 Information Gathering Methods ICES CIT (2008) states that ‘before the systems analyst can make any recommendations about a new system, they first have to understand how the resent system works. ‘ This is why the analyst would gather information from all the stakeholders of the present information system which they are affected by, chiefly the Users and managers. Such information required by the analyst include the operations of the system, the type of data stored, how it is stored and who are the users of the system.
There are a variety of methods an analyst can use in gathering information, as listed below. Documentation – Error Logs, User Manuals Questionnaires – Paper Based, Email Interviews – Face to Face, Focus Groups, Online, Telephone Observations Two (2) methods have been selected for the call centre scenario: 1. 51 FOCUS Groups Upon analyzing the call centre scenario, it would be understood that there are a total of 115 staff in the centre. This is the most appropriate method of information gathering as it allows most or all of the staff of the call centre to share their views and issues with the current system.
The systems analyst would do whatever is necessary to capture all the information provided by the most or all of the users of the system, most likely voice recording the entire group interview session. 1. 5. 2 Interviews (face-to-face) ICES CIT (2008) states, ‘the systems analyst can interview key people within the system to find out how it works. ‘ The key people are namely the current system users and the managers of the call center. Such interviews can take place at meeting rooms on weekends or during luncheon periods.
Seeing that the current system experiences serious problems, it may not be appropriate to hold such meeting during work hours. The reason for choosing this type of information gathering is because of its effectiveness in extracting the problems from the minds of the system users, as this is inherently difficult to do. The system analyst may provide visual illustrations via diagrams on a whiteboard to help the users in identifying all the problems. There would be collaboration between the two groups based on the diagrams, until a conclusion is formed. This type of information gathering is where the users are put in charge of the meeting. . Systems Development Lifestyle (OSDL) 1. 6. 1 purpose of OSDL Systems Development lifestyle (OSDL) is ‘a conceptual model used in project management that describes the stages involved in an information system development project, from an initial feasibility study to through maintenance f the completed application. ‘ Tech Target (2008). SAID_C has been developed as an engineering discipline in the mid 20th century. Before OSDL, there were programmers using programming techniques based on craftsmanship. This meant there wasn’t any order by which aspects of software creation were followed. As stated by Bender ORB Inc. 2003), ‘realistically, commercial applications development did not really take off until the early asses. These initial efforts are marked by a craftsman-like approach based on what intuitively felt right. Unfortunately, too many programmers had poor intuition. ‘ The OSDL as developed to rectify the problem of lacking engineering discipline to solving problems, thereby helping to create a system that is feasible, of high-quality and developed on time. Slideshows. Net (2013) 1. 6. Stages of SD LLC 1. 6. 2. 1 Planning Studded (2008) states that ‘Planning involves determining what the goal is and how best to accomplish that goal.
Several factors must be considered including equipment types, costs, employee willingness to learn, and employee knowledge. ‘ This stage involves determining the requirements of the proposed information system. Those requirements, once met, would meet the needs of the equines. 1. 6. 2. 2 Analysis Studded (2008) further states that ‘After the scope of the project has been determined in planning it is necessary to determine the exact source of the problem that is being solved. ‘ The system analysts and the system users liaise and discuss the issues of the current system.
The information systems manager would contribute to the meeting by providing information discussed at the preceding board meeting. 1. 6. 2. 3 Design The design phase is broken down into two (2) phases: Logical Design, giving a graphical and written explanation of what the system will do and Physical Design, explaining what tools will be used to perform the logical design. 1. 6. 2. 4 Coding This is the stage where the programmers would use the appropriate programming language to build the new system, under the direction of the system analyst. 1. 6. 2. 5 Testing Testing can be done either during the coding phase or after all coding has finished.
This is why both coding and testing phases are usually intertwined. 1. 6. 2. 6 Documentation This stage is critical because documentation in the form of user manuals and coding error fixes will be needed just in case problems arise in the new system. 1. 4. 2. 7 Implementation Upon completion of testing, the system, including relevant hardware and software are installed into the business. Implementing a new system is an extremely important stage because failure to do so would be very costly and the legacy system would still be in use, with all its problems negatively affecting the business. . 6. 2. 8 Evaluation This is the stage where the analyst would do a thorough review of the new system and measure it against the requirements as laid out in the analysis stage. 1. 6. 3 Benefits of OSDL OSDL is very beneficial to the business world as it helps to create systems in a spindled manner, that is, timely delivery of the system, high quality design, feasible, and ultimately helpful to the overall profits of the business. 2 Hard, Soft and Combined Approaches to Information Systems Analysis 2. Data Flow Diagram illustrating Customer Service Department IS usage Customer Payments Complaints 2. 2 Definition of Hard Systems Approach The Hard Approach to systems development, as defined by Auckland (1981 :138-139, 146), is “an approach to real-world problems in which an objective or end-to-be-achieved can be taken as given. ” This is a rigid, disciplined and exults oriented approach to systems development, following a logical sequence of steps and adheres to established standards. An example of a Hard Approach methodology is the Structured Systems Analysis and Design Methodology (SCADS). 2. Methodologies that use Hard Systems Approach Structured Systems Analysis and Design Methodology (SCADS) Prototyping Agile Methodology Scrum Rapid Analysis and Design (RAID) Joint Application Design (JADE) Dynamic Systems Design methodology (DADS) 2. 4 Benefits of using Hard Systems Approach With the understanding that a hard systems approach is strict and results oriented, the systems analyst can implement such a system to solve the problems of the current information system used in the call centre, namely inefficiency, unreliability and complexity. Certain parts of the system cannot be used by some of the staff in various departments.
A knowledge management system developed with the hard approach would definitely alleviate this issue. Some staff experience difficultly in using the system. This can be resolved by providing training for the staff to prepare them for the new system. Communication between the call center’s four departments is a major concern to management. The scenario indicates that this is because the Customer Services Department, being the main business of the call centre, is constantly busy, answering a minimum oft hundred calls per day, with erroneous input and OUtpUt of customer data.
A hard systems approach would solve this because the development of the new system would follow strict guidelines to ensure accuracy of data. This would help to improve communication because less data errors would mean more time for customer service staff to liaise with those in other departments. Furthermore the current system crashes because it cannot cope tit the load of data to be processed. Customer data also becomes inaccurate after being transferred between departments.
To solve this, the hard systems approach in developing the knowledge management system would ensure a better database is built to hold such data. 3 Stakeholder Analysis and CATTLE 3. 1 CATTLE CATTLE is an Acronym which stands for Customers/Clients, Actor/Agents, Transformations, World View, Owners and Environment. According to Bright Hub PM (2011), a CATTLE Analysis is ‘a Soft Systems Methodology tool used to prepare a rigorous and comprehensive root definition, as the basis to solving robbers with multiple perceptions. This type of analysis helps to identify and categorize all people, processes and external factors of the current information system. CATTLE analysis can be used in any information system project and especially when the needs of the current system users must be taken into account. A CATTLE analysis has been chosen for analyzing the call center’s information system because the scenario of the call centre lists all the users of the system as well as the external entities – the customers. The scenario contains all the necessary details need for a CATTLE analysis. . Explanation of the acronym and its application to call centre 3. 2. 1 customer/Client Article’s (2009) states, “In this context, ‘customers’ mean those who are on the receiving end of whatever it is that the system does. ” The customers/clients are those who either benefit or do not benefit from the work. In the call centre scenario, the customers are the actual customers who call the centre. The systems analyst may need to ask the customers if they have any issues with the current information system and how they will react to a new system. 3. 2 Actor/ Agent The actors are those people who work with the current system directly, usually he users. The systems analyst must ask the users how will a new information system can have an impact on them. In the call centre scenario, the actors are the users of the current system, from various departments. 3. 2. Transformation This is the process phase of the system, where inputs must be converted to outputs. The source of the inputs is determined and after processing, the destination of the outputs is determined. 3. 2. 4 World View Creating Minds (2013) asks, ‘what is the bigger picture into which the situation fits?
What is the real problem you are working on? What is the wider impact of NY solution? ‘ The development of the new system can have far reaching consequences for the call centre. 3. 2. 5 Owner Article’s (2009) states that the owners are ‘those who have sufficient formal power over the system to stop it existing if they so wished. ‘ The owners of the system in the call centre in this case would be the management team. 3. 2. 6 Environmental Constraints This refers to legal, financial and ethical constraints and limited resources.
The system analyst needs to know how these constraints would hamper the solution of implementing a new system and how to get around those constraints. In the call centre scenario, There is no indication that there would be constraints but it is assumed the customers would cause such, as implementing a new system may cause an inconvenience to them. 3. That is a Stakeholder? According to Stakeholder. Com (2013), a stakeholder is ‘anyone who can affect or is affected by an organization, strategy or project. They can be internal or external and they can be at senior or junior levels. ‘ 3. Stakeholder Analysis Using this type of analysis in the call centre scenario, the first thing to do is to identify all the stakeholders in the centre and external to it, i. . The users, management and the customers. After this, the systems analyst would determine and prioritize the stakeholders their influence, power and interest. After this, the analyst would have a proper understanding of the key stakeholders that can have a great impact on the call center’s decision to implement the new system. To determine and prioritize the stakeholders in terms of their influence, power and interest, a stakeholder matrix must be drawn.
Stakeholder Matrix Mind Tools (2013) 3. 5. 1 Manage Closely High Power, High Interest. Mind Tools (2013) states that ‘these are the people oh must full engage and make the greatest efforts to satisfy. ‘ In the call centre scenario, those stakeholder falling inn this category would be the management team, as that team has issues with the current system. 3. 5. Keep Satisfied High Power, Low Interest. Stakeholders in this category need to be worked with in order to keep them satisfied, but not as much as those who fall in the ‘Manage Closely’ category.
In the call centre scenario, the customer would fall in this category, as they may have power to halt the decision of implementing the new system, maybe due to inconveniences that may be caused. 3. 5. Keep Informed Low Power, High Interest. Stakeholders in this category need to be informed properly, to ensure that no big problems arise. In the call centre, the users of the current system would fall in this category, as they would be fully aware that the decision to implement a new system has be made and they may not have the influence or power to affect that decision. . Monitor Low Power, Less Interested. Such stakeholders need to be monitored. But they do not need to be communicated with often as they have very little influence. Customer in the call centre scenario may also fall under this category as they may to may all that affected by the issues of the current system. 3. 6 The Purpose of the Stakeholder Matrix The purpose of the Stakeholder matrix is to present a diagrammatic expression of the four (4) stakeholder categories according to their determined strategic priorities.
This analysis alongside the CATTLE analysis, has been chosen for analyzing the current information system used in the call centre because the assumption is that a proper understanding of the scenario would reveal that discovering stakeholder resistance would be difficult, since there is no revelation room the scenario that some people are satisfied with the current system, which has a lot of errors. 4 People Oriented Analysis 4. 1 Definition and Explanation of People Oriented Analysis This approach is a soft approach to information systems analysis.
The soft approach, as defined by Pearson (2013), is a “methodology that emphasizes the human involvement in systems and models their behavior as part of systems analysis in a way that is understandable by non-technical experts. ” People Oriented approach is designed in a way that allows all the users of the information system, from each department, to discuss the issues of the current yester and to have an input in the development of the new system in the requirements analysis phase.
The users of the current system would liaise with the systems analyst and speak about the technical aspects of the current system and the problems they may have with them. This system also incorporates a combined hard and soft systems approach, to ensure accurate output of results. 4. 2 Benefits of People Oriented Analysis The current information system used at the call centre is inefficient because there is erroneous input and output of customer data from the Customer Service Department. The people approach for analyzing this system would take this into account and the new system would be developed to ensure user-friendly technical aspects.