1.1 Explain employee’s role and responsibilities in relation to the prevention and control of infection.
They have to always be aware of and report changes in the health conditions of the individuals that they support. They also have a responsibility to assist with keeping work areas, and equipment clean, tidy and free from infection hazards. They are also encouraged to maintain good personal hygiene for themselves as well as their service users. For example, helping service users bathe, use the toilet and change remove and dispose of any soiled clothing. Another responsibility they hold is preparing and maintaining environment before and after episodes of patient care. They are also required to carry out general household duties, including, cleaning and making beds, decontaminating equipment, clearing up any spillages that may occur and disposing of any clinical waste.
1.2 Explain employer’s responsibilities in relation to the prevention and control of infection.
Employers have a particular responsibility to ensure that the care setting is safe for patients, service users, visitors and members of staff. They do this by ensuring that an up-to-date infection control policy is written up and includes the roles and responsibilities of all staff in relation to the prevention of infection and what to do if there was an outbreak of infectious disease. They also need to produce reports regularly that describes that the systems in place for prevention and control of infection are working properly and are taken seriously. For example, risk assessments, incidences of infection and how they were dealt with and staff training
2.1 Outline current legislation and regulatory body standards which are relevant to the prevention and control of infection.
Health and safety At Work Act 1974
Health and Social Care Act 2008
The NICE guidelines
Relevant Codes of Practice
National Minimum Standards (+ their regulatory body – Care Quality Commission in England)
2.2 Describe local and organisational policies relevant to the prevention and control of infection.
The Public Health (Control of Diseases) Act 1984
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Regulations 1992
Controlled Waste Regulations 1992 (includes Clinical Waste)
Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999
Food Safety Act 1990 and the Food Safety Act (General Food Hygiene) Regulations 1995.
3.1 describe procedure and system relevant to the prevention of control of infection.
There are many systems and procedures that provide ways of preventing and controlling the spread of infection. Receiving regular information updates at work and attending training raises everyone’s awareness about infection prevention and control. There is also information provided through the media and different campaigns are organised to raise awareness amongst the general public about infection prevention and control. There should be prevention of infection or infection control in any place of work these consist of hand washing techniques program, posting on how to segregate wastes, adequate disposal of garbage, and knowledge of how infection is being spread.
3.2 explain the potential impact of an outbreak of an infection on the individual and the organisation.
Infection is a major cause of human suffering. Even relatively minor infections can become more serious, leading to major infection and can, in some cases, lead to patient death. In addition to patient suffering, infection causes distress to family and friends. The costs to the health care system of providing care for those with infections are huge. In addition to concerns over the growing costs to health care, the use of antibiotics to treat these infections is thought to be contributing towards the problems surrounding antibiotic resistance.
4.1 define the word risk.
Risk is the potential of losing something of value, weighed against the potential to gain something of value. Values such as physical health, social status, emotional wellbeing or financial wealth, can be gained or lost when taking risk resulting from a given action, activity and/or inaction, foreseen or unforeseen. Risk can also be defined as the intentional interaction with uncertainty. Risk perception is the subjective judgment people make about the severity of a risk, and may vary person to person.
4.2 outline potential risk of infection within the workplace.
1. Airborne- coughs and sneeze
2. Contaminated ‘things’- Not washing your hands after using the toilet. I.e. transfer from one person to another via an object. 3. Skin to skin contact – Transfer of dirt on your hand to someone else’s i.e. transfer from one person to another directly 4. Transfer of Body Fluids – Cleaning up blood or ‘whatever’ without gloves 5. Food poisoning. – Fridge at wrong temperature and things kept in it for too long. First aid personnel and workers may be at risk of exposure to infectious diseases or biological hazards if they receive: a skin penetrating injury such as a needle stick injury if blood or body substances come into contact with broken skin, [ open wounds, eyes or mouth contaminated first aid equipment or materials are used Infectious diseases which may be transmitted by blood and some body substances include: hepatitis B hepatitis C human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus that causes AIDS .
4.3 describe the process of carrying out a risk assessment.
1.Identify the hazard and differentiate between the hazard and the risk 2.Deciding who might be harmed and how. 3.Evaluating the risk and deciding on precautions to minimise it. 4.Recording findings and implementing them 5.Review of the risk assessment and updating of risk control measures if necessary.
4.4 explain the importance of carrying out a risk assessment.
It is important to assess health and safety risks because it is my duty to high light and prevent any possible dangers to the residents, myself and co-workers. By assessing health and safety risks I am able to for see and prevent accidents and danger before they happen.
5.2 describe different types of PPE.
Plastic apron are used for covering cloths or uniforms. It is made from slippery plastic so it is harder for pathogens to stick. It is suitable to protect from body fluids and to be worn during other tasks that hold a risk for bringing you into contact with pathogens. Plastic or latex gloves are good for protection for your hands and nails, which are the main way pathogens are transmitted. Paper masks are used to cover mouth and nose which are key sources of pathogens, as well as routes for pathogens to gain entry into the body. Plastic over shoes are worn normal over shoes to prevent pathogens for outside being bought into clean areas.
5.3 explain the reason for use of PPE.
Personal protective equipment reduces, but does not completely eliminate, the Risk of acquiring an infection. It is important that it is used effectively, correctly and at all times where contact with blood and body fluids of patients may occur.
5.4 state current relevant regulations and legislations relating to PPE.
Employees are responsible to use PPE appropriate and as instructed by employer. An employee has to check PPE before and after use and have to report any damage. Ensuring employees who store and handle dangerous substances are properly trained. Using appropriate precautions when handling substances for example, wearing protective clothing or ensuring adequate ventilation. Checking containers are properly labelled.
5.5 describe employee’s responsibilities regarding the use of PPE.
My main responsibilities are to keep myself and others safe by following the health and safety .Procedures. I should attend all training given by my employer and wear all personal protective Equipment provided. They should wash their hands correctly and as often as necessary, disposing of waste correctly, cover their moth when coughing or sneezing and to use the appropriate protective equipment provided when necessary.
5.6 describe employer’s responsibilities regarding the use of PPE
My employer’s responsibility is to provide appropriate PPE, maintain and store PPE correctly, provide training, instruction and notices about PPE, carry out risk assessments to inform decisions about appropriate PPE, ensure PPE is being used and used properly.
5.7 describe the correct practice in application and removal of PPE.
How to apply
1. Wash hands before use.
2. Put on gloves and apron before starting the procedure.
3. Change gloves and aprons between caring for different residents and between different care tasks for the same resident.
How to remove
1. Remove as soon as the procedure is complete.
2. Take off carefully and in such a way that your hands and cloths do not have contact with any substances contaminating the glove or apron surface.
5.8 describe the correct procedure for disposal of use PPE.
Gloves are for single use only and must be disposed of after removing, dispose of as clinical waste, do not touch the bin with contaminated gloves or hands, and wash hands with soup as soon as gloves/aprons are disposed of.
6.1 describe the key principles of good personal hygiene.
Hair care – regular hair washing prevents the spread of bacteria. Long hair needs to be tied back. Oral hygiene – good oral hygiene and six monthly visits to the dentist will prevent the build-up of bacteria and reduce halitosis. Hand and nail care – Hand and nail care is vital in preventing and controlling the spread of infection. Clean cloths – clean clothes and an important aspect of personal hygiene and should be changed daily.
6.3 describe the correct sequence for hand washing.
1. Preferably use running water.
2. Wet hands thoroughly before using soap.
3. Soup hands, making sure solution comes into contact with all areas. 4. Rub hands together vigorously foe a minimum of 10-15 seconds, paying attention to the tips of the fingers, the thumbs and the areas between the fingers. 5. It is vital that hands are dried thoroughly. Ideally use a hot air drier or use paper towels.
6.4 explain when and why hand washing should be carried out. Hand washing is vital to stop the spread of infection and cross contaminate. We should wash hands whenever needed. Such as Whenever hands are sticky or soiled with visible dirt.
After going to the toilet, touching mouth or nose.
Before and after direct contact with residents.
Between different care activities for the same resident.
Before putting on and after removing disposable gloves.
After contact with body fluids
Before and after handling, cooking serving and eating food.
6.6 describe correct procedures that relate to skincare.
Never used glove when is not needed and always used moisturising cream after each hand wash and if you notice any sore you should report to your manager .But never stop practising a good hygiene ,but if it get worsen contact tour GP.
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