epidemiology

Captioning agents have special properties that allow them to invade the human body or produce toxins. ; Etiology: the study of the cause of a disease ; Infection: invasion and groom of pathogens in the body ; Disease: Abnormal state in which the body is not functioning normally. The Normal Macrobiotic (Flora) Microbial antagonism due to competition between microbes.

Resident flora = Normal macrobiotic (acquired at passage through birth canal) Establish permanent colonies on/inside body without producing disease. Protect the host by 1 . Occupying niches that pathogens might occupy Competitive exclusion) 2. Producing acids 3. Producing obstetricians 4. Stimulation of immune system C] I. E. : infectious agent overcomes body’s defenses 11/8/2013 Transient Macrobiotic (Flora) Location Certain microbes are present for various periods (days, weeks, or months) -? then disappear.

Proboscis: Live microbes applied to or ingested into the body, intended to exert a beneficial effect Dynamic nature of resident flora: changes due to age, type of food consumed, Hormonal state, antibiotics Various Co-existence Relationships Between Bacteria and Host ; Symbiosis Mutuality: microbe and host benefit from co-existence, neither suffers ; Commercialism: microbe benefits but host doesn’t (is unaffected) ; Parasitism: microbe benefits, host suffers ; Opportunistic pathogens cause disease under special conditions (naturalistic relationship becomes pa racists) ; Healthy carriers of pathogenic organisms ; Cooperation among microorganisms: One microorganism may make it possible for another to cause disease or produce more severe symptoms Classifying Infectious Diseases ; Symptom: A change in body function that is felt by a patient as a result of disease Sign: A change in a body that can be measured or observed as a result of disease. Signs (objective) – Symptoms (subjective) ; Syndrome: A specific group of signs and symptoms that accompany a disease ; Communicable vs.. Incommunicable vs..

Contagious 2 Severity or Duration of a Disease Scope of disease can be defined as ; Acute: Disease develops rapidly ; Chronic: Disease develops slowly ; Subtract: Symptoms between acute and chronic ; Latent: Disease with a period of no symptoms when the causative agent is inactive ; Herd immunity: Presence of immunity o a disease in most of the population Extent of Host Involvement Secondary infection ; Tootsie: Toxins in the blood ; Vermin: Viruses in the blood ; Primary infection: Acute infection that causes the initial illness ; Secondary infection: Opportunistic infection after a primary (predisposing) infection ; Substantial disease: No noticeable signs or symptoms (unapparent infection) 3 Extent of Host Involvement: An Infection can be ; Local: limited to small area of body ; Systemic: spread throughout body via ; Focal: spread from local infection to specific areas

Patterns of Disease: Predisposing Factors Variable susceptibility due to ; Genetics ; Gender ; Climate and weather ; Age Sepsis: Toxic inflammatory condition arising from spread of microbes or their toxins, from a focus Bacteria: Bacteria in the blood. Skepticism: Growth of bacteria in the blood. ; Stress and fatigue, ; Lifestyle ; Chemotherapy Disease Development and Fig 14. 5 Stages Incubation period: Time internal between initial infection and first appearance signs and symptoms. The Course of Disease, as Typified by Measles of Prodigal period: Characterized by appearance f first mild signs and symptoms. Period of illness: Disease at its height: all disease signs and symptoms apparent. Period of decline: Signs and symptoms subside. Period of convalescence: Body returns to predisposed state, health is restored.

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