In the general environment for humans’ survival, all the materials or products used in structures or buildings are called building materials which are the material foundation for all the construction engineering. There is a wide variety of building materials.
They are usually classified from different angles for the sake of study, application and description. The most common classifications are based on their chemical components and functions. Building materials are the material foundation for all the construction engineering.Building materials industry which is one of the important basic industries of national economy promotes the development of the construction industry.
Various buildings and structures are constructed by all kinds of building materials on the basis of reasonable design. The varieties, specifications and qualities of building materials are directly related to the applicability, artistry and durability of buildings and also to the cost of projects. A large number of high-quality industrial and civil buildings need to be built for the development of society.Meanwhile, a great deal of water conservancy projects, traffic engineering and port projects need to be built to adapt to the rapid development of the national economy.
It requires lots of high-quality building materials which accords with the application environment of projects. Therefore, building materials industry is usually considered as the basic industry for the construction engineering. Building materials not only have a large consumption, but also are expensive. In the total cost of the construction, the cost of building materials often accounts for about 50 percent.
Thus, it is significant to properly choose and reasonably utilize building materials in the construction for the reduction of costs and the improvement of investment benefits. A large number of new building materials continue to emerge, often promoting the innovation and development of construction techniques. For example, the emergence of clay bricks contributes to the brick-timber structure; the reinforced concrete structure comes from concrete and steel bar; light high-strength materials promote the development of modem buildings and high-rise buildings; the application of various functional materials in the onstruction industry continues to create diversified comfortable living and production environment and to conserve energy. In short, the application of building materials in the projects must possess the following characteristics: the function required by projects, the durability proper for the environmental conditions, the rich resources to meet the needs of construction, and low price.
In the building environment, the ideal building materials should be light, high-strength, aesthetic, heat-insulating, sound-absorbing, waterproof, shockproof, fireproof, non-toxic, and efficient, etc. Various building materials form the living environment of human beings, which reflects the cultural and scientific features of each era, becoming an important symbol of humans’ material civilization.