A teacher ought to develop some exceptional skills and knowledge to teach their subjects other than the knowledge of the subject matter. These are skill that requires them to be able to present the knowledge. Teachers professional exams only offer modest assurance that new teachers are fully prepared to enter the classroom and be successful. Different subjects require different teaching and learning strategies therefore graduates should have knowledge and skills needed to manage students and their learning and master challenging subject matter
For teachers to achieve on teaching students to notice, identify, think about, and manipulate the sounds (phonemes) of the English language, they first need to appreciate and understand Sounds need to be taught for about 10-15 minutes per day in line with reading instruction.
Secondly is the need to focus on just a few types of phonemic awareness, for better results. In line with Angelo and Patricia in Cross teaching-strategies-mentorship in 1990, there are a lot of skills in phonemic awareness, but research has found that blending and segmentation are the critical skills that must be taught. Instruction must focus on blending and segmenting words at the phoneme, or sound level as an auditory task.
Thirdly teachers get better results when teaching phonemic awareness to small groups of children rather than an entire class. Fourthly phonemic awareness needs to be taught explicitly with the instructional program showing children what they are expected to do. Teachers must therefore model skills they want children to perform before the children are asked to demonstrate the skill through a language-rich environment of songs, poems, read aloud, and word play. Children assessment determines the teachers score on a rubric.
Lastly teachers ought to take Phonemic awareness as an auditory skill that increases effectiveness when manipulation of letters is added to it. The letters are reduced once children start to become familiar with the concepts so other things such as letter tiles or squares are used to form sounds and words.
Speech is composed of individual sounds. As part of the hierarchy of reading skills developed in early reading, it is not a unitary skill, but is comprised of various components.
For teachers to know how to develop fluent readers who can concentrate on building meaning, frequent reading is the best way of helping a child to read fluently. The time ought to vary based on the age and skill level. Repletion is used for non-readers. The teacher reads a line, and to learn inflection and phrasing the child repeats the line. By reading to a non-reader they are able to understand what a good reader sounds like.
Re-reading books over again is another great strategy that will help teach expression and reading in phrases. Pauses at a period, correct voice inflection for exclamation and question marks is emphasized. Young fluent readers are encouraged to read a variety of books and read to the younger or non-readers.
The Before Reading Strategies predicts what is to be read by examining the front cover and doing a picture walk through the book. This assists young children to use basic logic skills while looking at the graphics to form ideas of what the reading will be about. This prediction skill gives them a set of ideas which they can use to decode unfamiliar words they come across while reading.
The second strategy is during Reading where simple questions requiring simple recalls or inference are asked during reading. This enables one to understand what is going on in the reading and what may happen next. Answers for difficult question are found by re-reading.
Lastly the after Reading Strategies assist in recalling what was read. As Angelo and Patricia (1990) put it “Reading is only half the battle when it comes to comprehension.” Engagement in the reading pays off in greater comprehension of what is being read.
Teaching and Assessment:
Teachers must be able to prepare high-quality tests based on what was taught and what children needed to know. They use assessment applications matching the best classroom assessment practices with the diverse ways to measure learning like systematically examining samples of student work and using their discoveries to refine their teaching strategies. Salinger and Bacevich surveys of administrators and teachers in 2001 showed that assessment in not a one-time event. It is a process of gathering data as a permanent part of teaching and learning process.
Teachers ought to purposefully probe rich evidence that lies immediately at hand so as to know how students best learn. It is achievable through assessment of their students writing, math problem-solving, science projects, artwork, and whatever other evidence they can gather in written notes, audio or video form every day. Anxiously trying out ones lesson plans on fellow teachers may also assist in testing on their own classroom performance. In line with Angelo and Patricia on lessons and recommendations in 1990, “Most teachers who examine student work and lesson plans together follow some kind of protocol that helps assure that the focus is on the work on the table and not the particular student or teacher who produced it.”
Classroom Assessment is the main component of classroom management where teachers are involved in the continuous monitoring of the learning process. It also gives required feedback about effectiveness of teachers and act as a measure for progress. For teachers to get better feedbacks they need to closely observe students in their learning process and respond through designed classroom experiments. According to Angelo and Patricia (1990), continuous flow of accurate information on student learning ensures high-quality learning.
According to Froyen, and Iverson, (1999), school and classroom management encourages and establishes self control on students and promotes positive achievement and behavior. Good management promotes academic achievement, efficacy and effectiveness of teachers, and directly links students to teachers through their behaviors. “Classroom management focuses on three major components: content, conduct and covenant management.” (Froyen, and Iverson, 1999)
Angelo T and Patricia K, (1990). Cross teaching-strategies-mentorship. A Handbook for
College Teachers, 2nd Ed. Retrieved November 27, 2008, from: http://teaching-strategies-mentorship.suite101.com/article.cfm/improving_reading_skills
Froyen, L. A., & Iverson, A. M. (1999). Schoolwide and classroom management: The reflective
educator-leader (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Salinger T and Bacevich .A, (2001). Lessons and recommendations from the Alabama readings
initiative. American Institute of Research (AIR).